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World War II. Mobilization Retaking Europe The Holocaust The War in the Pacific The Social Impact of the War. Map of WWII Europe. FDR’s Four Freedoms. Mobilization. When the US declared war, they were not ready for war Mobilizing the US Armed Forces

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World war ii

World War II


Retaking Europe

The Holocaust

The War in the Pacific

The Social Impact of the War


  • When the US declared war, they were not ready for war

  • Mobilizing the US Armed Forces

    • Selective Training and Service Act = The Draft (21-36 yrs)

      • Military Spending went from $2 billion to $10 billion

    • FDR’s “4 FREEDOMS” Speech

      • Freedom from WANT * Freedom from FEAR

      • Freedom of RELIGION * Freedom of SPEECH

  • The GI War

    • More than 16 Million served as “GI’s”

    • Normal everyday American men who left home to fight for freedom


  • Diversity in the Armed Forces (despite facing racism at home, they served)

    • All racial/ethnic backgrounds served in the US Military

      • 300,000 Mexican American served

      • 25,000 “CODE TALKERS” (Native Americans) served

      • 1,000,000 African Americans served (Tuskegee Airmen)

  • Women in the Military - 35,000 volunteered to serve

    • Worked as clerks, typists, airfield control towers, mechanics, photographers andrivers

    • Anything to free up a soldier to fight

  • Mobilization2

    • Preparing the Economy

      • US entered at other country’s ability to produce was down

        • Most of England, France and Germany were hampered by war

    • War Production

      • Federal government would have to coordinate economy to meet needs

      • WAR PRODUCTIONS BOARD: converted businesses to war production

      • OFFICE OF WAR MOBILIZATION: centralized resources

        • Ford Motors started making bombers

        • Profits guaranteed (pride and patriotism)

        • Production goals set, raised each year

          • By the end of the war, the Allies could double the Axis production


    • Wartime Work Force

      • War production will employ our nation (ending the Great Depression)

      • Wages rose by more than 50% from 1940-1945

      • Union membership rose

      • Labor and Business agreed: No Strikes, No Lockouts

  • Financing the War (US Gov’t vowed to spend whatever necessary)

    • Higher Taxes, War Bonds, borrowing financed the $321 billion it took)

  • Mobilization4

    • Daily Life on the Home Front (the war effected EVERYONE)

      • Shortages and Controls

        • People had money for first time since the 1920’s, but many things were rationed

          • Metal, rubber, nylon stockings, certain foods

          • Ration cards (sugar, coffee, meat, butter, canned fruit, shoes)

          • Gasoline rationed too “Is this trip really necessary?”

  • Popular Culture

    • Books & Magazines

    • Radio & Records

    • Baseball & Movies

  • Mobilization5

    • Enlisting Public Support (Gov’t encouraged people to take part in the war effort)

      • Accept rationing, conserve precious resources

      • Hired writers and artists to create posters/ads to stir American patriotism

      • “VICTORY GARDENS” to grow veggies at home

      • “Blackouts”- People shuttered their homes at night

      • Civil Defense

      • Recycle efforts – metal, paper and other war production materials


    Retaking europe
    Retaking Europe

    • Americans Join the Struggle(France in German hands, London under seige )

      • The Battle of the Atlantic

        • Convoys used to get American Soldiers and supplies by the German Uboats

        • “Wolf Packs” hunted military and merchant ships

        • Sonar and better tactics will decrease the “Wolf Pack’s” success

    • The North Africa Campaign

      • Rommel and Montgomery fought for control of Northern Africa

      • When US troops arrived, they lost their first battle but learned and won later

      • Churchill and Roosevelt will meet at Casablanca and mapped out their strategy for the rest of the war: Europe first , then the Pacific

        • Only unconditional surrender from Italy and Germany

    Retaking europe1
    Retaking Europe

    • The Invasion of Italy (2 front war)

      • US and British troops hit Sicily and the Italian mainland

      • The Fascist Italian government voted Mussolini out

      • Allied troops advanced thru Italy, nearing Rome, and the Italians surrendered

      • The Germans did not give up – (Fight or Die)

      • Many months of brutal fighting

      • Finally, Germans surrender, Mussolini shot by Italians

    Retaking europe2
    Retaking Europe

    • War in the Soviet Union

      • The Germans Advance – Hitler breaks “non-aggression pact”

        • Believing he could take Russia quickly, Hitler poured into Russia

        • 100,000’s + Russian Soldiers taken prisoner

        • Millions of Russian Soldiers and even more civilians dig in for a fight

          • (some saw German’s as liberators because Stalin was brutal but quickly found out the Germans were worse. They were forced labor or executed)

      • As Red Army retreated, Germans destroyed everything

      • Russian’s asked America for LEND LEASE aid, and it was sent

      • As Germans threatened Moscow and other key cities, Stalin begged the Allies to attack Italy and take the pressure off Russia. The Allies weren’t ready and left Russia to deal with the full force of the German Army

    Retaking europe3
    Retaking Europe

    • The Battle of Stalingrad (Winter will hit and change everything)

      • Germany’s Army will bog down in the winter

      • The people of Stalingrad will hold out and the battle will rage again in Spring

      • When winter hit again, the Germans were stuck without supplies

      • By late January, 90,000 Germans surrendered. 330,000 dead

      • Russian losses were worse. More than 1,000,000 died in Stalingrad

    Retaking europe4
    Retaking Europe

    • The Allied Air War(Allied planes also went after military and civilian targets)

      • Carpet Bombing –scattering large numbers of bombs over a wide area

      • Allied bombing of Germany intensified when US entered the war

      • Hundreds of bombers would rain destruction on German cities

      • In 1943, Allies stepped up their bombing in advance of invasion

      • British and German citizens took to spending nights underground to survive

        • 40,000 Germans will die in 4 nights in bombings on Hamburg

    • By 1944, US and British coordinated attacks

      • Americans bombed by day, British bombed by night

      • 3,000 planes a day took flight

    Retaking europe5
    Retaking Europe

    • Stalin (and some US Generals) were calling for the invasion of western Europe

      • Operation Overlord would be launched from England

      • General Dwight D. Eisenhower named Supreme Commander

      • THE PLAN: To attack Europe from Britain in Normandy

        Massive troops buildup began

      • Germany, in response, fortified their defenses in N. France

      • SUBTRIFUGE: The British were masters of trickery.

        • A plan was devised to trick the Germans into thinking the attack would come at Calais not Normandy

          • Spys were turned and sent fake messages

          • “Secret” battle plans were planted

          • Fake troop build up across from Calais

    D day june 6 19441
    D-DAY (June 6, 1944)


    • 4,600 invasion craft crossed the British Channel

    • 1,000 RAF aircraft bombed the coastline of France

    • 23, 000 airborne parachuted behind enemy lines (British and American)

    • 150,000 troops landed along 60 miles of French coast

    • Heavy casualties (2,000 on one beach), but the Allies gained control (10,000 Allied casualties in one day)

    • Within 1 week, ½ million troops and their equipment were ashore

    • By late July, over 2 million Allied troops in France

    D day june 6 19442
    D-Day (June 6, 1944)

    • Liberating France (Aug. ‘44)

      • August, 1944 – The French Resistance began an uprising as Allied troops neared

      • First objective, retake Paris . . . then on to Germany

      • Hitler ordered Paris burned, the generals ignored the order

      • Massive celebration as the Germans gave up control of Paris

      • By late September, Allied troops were nearing Germany

  • The Battle of the Bulge (Dec.‘44 – Jan.‘44)

    • Hitler’s last attempt to stop the Allies in a counter attack on Allied lines

    • Several units fought against overwhelming German attack and held off assault

    • 80,000 Allies forces died, 100,000 German forces died

    • After this battle, German general (not Hitler) realized the war was lost

  • The war in europe ends
    The War in Europe Ends

    • The War in Europe Ends

      • Soviet Forces Advance

        • As Allied bombers continued to pound German cities, Soviet forces hit from the east

        • Fighting between Germany and USSR was horrific

          • 9 million Russian soldiers (and as many as 9 million civilians) died

          • 3 million German soldiers died

          • Soviet leaders viewed the capture of Berlin a matter of honor

          • Soviet Army meets up with Allied Armies outside Berlin

  • Germany Surrenders

    • Hitler refused to leave Berlin (as his generals suggested)

    • Went into his bunker and committed suicide

    • A few days later, Germany surrendered (May 8, 1945) V-E Day

    • War in Europe was over, but the War in the Pacific still going on

  • The war in europe ends1
    The War in Europe Ends

    • The Yalta Conference

      • Feb, 1945 – THE BIG THREE (Roosevelt, Churchill & Stalin) met in Yalta

      • Planned what would happen after the war ended

        • Split Germany (and Berlin) into 4 zones

        • Stalin agreed to elections in Eastern Europe and to help in Japan

          • (promises he later broke)


    The holocaust
    The Holocaust

    • Persecution in Germany

      • Nazi Policies: The belief in “Aryan Superiority” drove German policies

        • Anti-Semitism: discrimination or hostility (often violent) directed at Jews

        • Anti-Semitism became official policy under the Nazi’s

        • Eventually 2/3 of Europe’s Jewish population (6 million +) murdered

        • One-Day Boycott then a total boycott of Jewish owned businesses

        • German Citizenship stripped from Jews

        • Jews attacked as “enemies of the Germans” in the media

        • Jews expelled from German schools

        • Identification worn on clothing; Names changed to identify

        • SS used to enforce German policies

        • Most Jews believed they could endure until Hitler lost power

          • (they were wrong)

    The holocaust1
    The Holocaust

    • Kristallnacht (The Night of the Broken Glass)

      • Nearly every Synagogue destroyed, 1000’s arrested and sent to “Labor Camps”

      • Jews forced to pay fines to pay for damages to German property on that night

  • Refugees Seek an Escape

    • 1 in 4 Jews fled Germany (with Nazi encouragement) to nearby countries

    • Few countries welcomed the refugees – The Great Depressions

    • A conference was called to discuss the refugees. 32 nations refused to take them in

  • The holocaust2
    The Holocaust

    • From Murder to Genocide

      • The Warsaw Ghetto: An enclosed city

        • Received little food (hunger, starvation the norm)

        • Crowding brought disease; 1000’s died each month

        • Still the Nazi’s sought more efficient ways to kill the Jews

    • The Einsatzgrupppen (Mobile Killing Squads)

      • Sent to kill Communist leaders and Jews in German occupied territories

      • Rounded up Jews, dug a big ditch and shot them

      • BabiYar: 33,000 Jews killed in 2 days and put in a mass grave

  • Wannsee Conference

    • Nazi officials met to discuss what to do with the Jews

    • “Final Solution” = Genocide

  • The holocaust3
    The Holocaust

    • The Death Camps

      • (Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Sobibor, Treblinka & others)

      • Sorting process as trains deposited Jews

        • The ones they could use for labor were sent to camps

        • The young, old, infirmed, etc were sent to the showers

        • Nazi’s decided that poison gas would be the most efficient way to kill

        • Showers designed to allow as many to be killed at a time as possible

    • Fighting Back

      • Underground Resistance

      • Escape

      • Survival

  • Rescue and Liberation

    • US knew as early as 1942, but no political will to do anything about it

    • 1944 – FDR created War Refugee Board (WRB) to try to help those threatened by the NAZI’s. It will help save more than 200,000 lives

    • As Allies advanced on Germany, the camps were abandoned. Thousands will die before the rescuers get to them.

    • NUREMBERG TRIALS: Crimes against Humanity

  • The war in the pacific
    The War in the Pacific

    • The Japanese Advance

      • The Philippines Fall

        • After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese move to take control of Asia

        • The Philippines taken – 76,000 Filipinos and Americans taken prison

        • Bataan Death March – 10,000 die on march, 15,000 die in camps

    • Defending China and Burma

      • Japan takes control of China and Burma, ending British aid to the rebels

        • 2 Aircraft Carriers were out at the time of attack

        • 2 were damaged but reparable

    The war in the pacific1
    The War in the Pacific

    • The War at Sea

      • Pearl Harbor had crippled the US Navy, but not totally

      • Doolittle Raid

        • After PH, the US needed to strike back (for morale reasons)

        • Plan devised to hit Japan and fly to China and land

        • Most pilots survived (many captured by Japanese in China)

        • Minimal damage but a HUGE morale boost for US and its military

    The war in the pacific2
    The War in the Pacific

    • Allied Victories Turn the Tide

      • The Battle of Midway

        • Japan wanted to deal a final blow to the US Navy

        • The base on Midway was the key to their plans

        • US had a surprise for Japan – the 2 aircraft carriers damaged were fixed

        • Japan lost 4 carriers, 250+ planes, & most of its skilled pilots

        • Last offensive attack by Japan

    • The Battle of Guadalcanal

      • 1st island the Allies try to retake

      • 6 month battle – Japanese and Allies reinforced their troops

      • Jungle warfare – fanatical Japanese fighters – heavy casualties

      • 1st Japanese controlled territory the Allies took back

    The war in the pacific3
    The War in the Pacific

    • Struggle for the Islands

      • Island Hopping

        • Strategy to block food and supplies was successful

        • Japanese fighters were still fierce fighters

    • The Philippines Campaign

      • Planners wanted to “hop” over the Philippines, but McArthur pressed

      • Tough battles (Leyte Gulf), Japanese did not want to lose this base

      • KAMIKAZES: used for the first time, to great effect

      • Japanese Navy virtually destroyed, the Allies marched on toward Japan

        • 80,000 Japanese troops died, less than 1,000 taken prisoner

    The war in the pacific4
    The War in the Pacific

    • The Manhattan Project

      • The Decision to Drop the Bomb

        • 1. A Massive Invasion (millions of casualties)

        • 2. Naval Blockade (long, conventional bombing needed)

        • 3. A Demonstration (might not work, only 3 bombs)

        • 4. Softening the Allied Demands

        • 5. Drop the Bomb

    • Japan Surrenders

      • August 6, 1945 – The Enola Gay drops bomb on Hiroshima

      • Japan given 3 days to surrender or another bomb dropped

      • August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki is bombed

      • August 14, 1945 – Japan surrenders

        • (J-V Day)

    Impact of the atomic bomb
    Impact of the Atomic Bomb

    Instantly: 5-10 mile radius incinerated

    Deaths: More than 150,000-200,000 died instantly

    Cities destroyed

    Japanese culture forever altered

    US – Only country EVER to use an atomic bomb

    Began the “COLD WAR” arms race with the Soviet Union

    Social impact of the war
    Social Impact of the War

    • African Americans

      • Economic Discrimination: Industry needed millions of workers

        • Still 1 of 5 African Americans out of work at the beginning of war

        • Executive Order 8802: Desegregated Defense Programs

        • FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Committee) set up to hear complaints about hiring/work practices

      • Soldiers and Segregation: Both served, but in different units

      • Divided Opinions

        • Most whites believed African American soldiers satisfied with conditions in the military and new opportunities in society

        • CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) formed to fight for equality

  • Mexican Americans

    • The BRACERO Program: to meet the need for agricultural workers during the war, 200,00+ Mexican workers were brought in

      • Also worked in military programs (aircraft industry)

    • Zoot Suit Riots: Mexican Bracero’slivedin BARRIO’s, especially in LA and SD. Military soldiers based in area conflicted with “ZootSuiters”

    • Soldiers confined to base

  • Social impact of the war1
    Social Impact of the War

    • Native Americans (Culture Shock)

      • 25,000 volunteered

      • 23,000 worked in war industries

      • “CODE TALKERS”

    Social impact of the war2
    Social Impact of the War

    • Japanese Americans

      • Japanese Internment

        • Executive Order 9066

        • Remove “any or all persons” of Japanese dissent

          • (2/3 were American born)

        • They would be “interned” or contained during war

        • Poor conditions common

    • Legal Challenges

      • There were legal challenges to this policy

        • Korematsu v. US (1944) S.C. found US government acted within the rules of a nation at war. The S.C. would later overturn this ruling

    • Japanese Americans in the Military

      • 17,000+ will volunteer, would serve in segregated units

    • After the War

      • Those in camps returned to find their property had been taken

      • They had to start all over

      • 1988 – US Congress passed a law giving $20,000 to each surviving internee or their family

    Social impact
    Social Impact

    • Working Women

      • New Kinds of Jobs

        • Traditional jobs for women no longer enough for war effort

        • Higher paying jobs in factories and plants opened as men went to war

        • By 1944, 19.4 million women working in war industries

        • “Rosie the Riveter”

    • Benefits and Problems with Employment

      • Women got more money and more self-confidence

      • They earned less than men, often faced resentment for working

      • Had to juggle home and work

  • After the War

    • “For the duration”, women expected to give up jobs when men returned

    • Most content to leave, but many wanted to stay

  • Review chapter 18
    Review – Chapter 18

    • Mobilization

      • How the US mobilized for war

      • Effect of war on daily life

  • Retaking Europe

    • War in the Soviet Union (impact on Allies decisions)

    • Invasion into Italy

    • Invasion into Northern Europe (D-Day, Battle of the Bulge)

  • The Holocaust

    • How/why the Nazi’s used the “Final Solution”

    • US response to the Holocaust

  • The War in the Pacific

    • Midway & Guadalcanal

    • Island Hopping (Philippines, Iwo Jima, Okinawa)

    • The Atomic Bomb (Choices, Decision to use, Effects)

  • The War’s Social Effects

    • African Americans & Mexicans

    • Native Americans

    • Japanese Internment

    • Women

  • Ch 18 essays
    Ch 18 Essays

    • 1) What factors motivated Italy, Germany and Japan and its leaders to pursue aggressive foreign policies during the 1930’s?

    • 2) Do you think the Allies could have won World War II without the aid of the United States? EXPLAIN!!

    • 3) What were some alternatives to using the atomic bomb against Japan? EXPLAIN whether or not you think dropping the atomic bomb was the best strateg and WHY

    • 4) How might the events of World War II have been different if Germany had honored its non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union?