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Verbals and Verbal Phrases . ELA8C1f—The student analyzes the structure of a sentence ( basic sentence parts ). What is a VERBAL?. A verb acting like another part of speech 3 types: infinitives, gerunds, and participles. Infinitives. to + a verb

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Verbals and verbal phrases

Verbals and Verbal Phrases

ELA8C1f—The student analyzes the structure of a sentence (basic sentence parts).


What is a verbal
What is a VERBAL?

  • A verb acting like another part of speech

  • 3 types: infinitives, gerunds, and participles


Infinitives
Infinitives

  • to + a verb

  • Can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence

  • Examples:

    • I like to read before I go to sleep.

    • Most people like to watch comedies on TV.

    • To succeed in school, you must work hard.


Infinitives vs prepositional phrases
Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases

  • Be aware that the word TO does not always mean you have an infinitive.

  • If TO is not followed by a verb, it is NOT an infinitive.

    • I like to shop at the mall.

    • Let’s go to the mall.

  • Which sentence contains an infinitive and which sentence contains a prepositional phrase? Why?


Gerunds
Gerunds

  • A verb acting like a noun

  • Always ends in –ing

  • Can be used as subjects, direct objects and indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and predicate nominatives.


Gerunds continued
Gerunds continued

  • Examples

    • Swimming is my favorite sport.

    • Do you like riding horses?

    • Many students like playing basketball in PE.

  • Gerund or not?

    • The dog, carrying its bone in its mouth, ran around the house.

      • Carrying is NOT a gerund; not used as a noun

    • Smiling is an indication that a person is happy.

      • Smiling is a gerund; it is used as a noun (subject of the the sentence)


Participles
Participles

  • A verb acting like an adjective

  • Often ends in –ing or –ed but occasionally ends in another way

  • Examples

    • Smiling, the teacher collected homework from her students.

    • I like ice skating on frozen ponds.

    • Barking dogs can be a nuisance.

    • The burnt popcorn made the entire house smell.


Participial phrases
Participial Phrases

  • A participial phrase is a participle and all of its objects or modifiers

  • Examples

    • Rounding third base, the runner charged toward home plate.

    • The pitcher, losing control, has overthrown the ball.

    • Especially pleased, the crowd cheered loudly.


Hints
Hints

  • Participles and participial phrases are almost always near the noun or pronoun they modify.

  • Participles and participial phrases can usually be taken out of a sentence and the sentence will still make sense.

    • The skilled catcher trapped the wild pitch in his mitt.

    • The catcher trapped the wild pitch in his mitt.


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