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Materials to Make Swingers

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2 Strings, 50cm

2 Paper clips

2 Pennies

2 Pencils

1 Meter tape

Masking tape

How to Build a Swinger sheet

- How many times do you think your swinger will swing in 15 seconds?
- How can you find out?

- When the swinger is released, the swinger will swing away and then come back
- This is one Cycle
- Need to count each time the swinger comes back close to the point from which it was released.

number of pennies

release position

length of swing

Push the swinger as you release it.

Blow on it.

- old clock
- museum
- playground swing
- metronome
- ponytail
- birdhouse
- leaf on a tree

- What is a variable?
- What is a pendulum and where have you seen one?
- What variables might affect the number of cycles the pendulum makes in 15 seconds?

- What Scientist Do?

For Each Group

2 Swingers

2 Strings, different lengths

2 Pencils

4 Pennies

1 Meter tape

For the Class

Scissors

Masking tape

Clock or watch with second hand

Swingers number line

- Review the three variables that they thought might affect the number of swings of a pendulum.
- Review the setup for the pendulum -38 cm long, one, penny, released straight out to the side for 15 seconds. This is called a standard pendulum system. (record this in your journal)

- An experiment is an investigation designed to find out how variables affect outcomes.
- An experiment in which one variable is changed and the outcome is compared to a standard is a controlled experiment.

Test the Variable of Release Position

How do you think this new release position will affect the number of swings?

More swings? Fewer swings?

Same number?

If we change the angle

Change the angle

The number of swings will

angle

Test the Variable of Mass

How do you think adding mass to the pendulum bob will affect the number of swings?

More swings? Fewer swings?

Same number?

The effect of mass on the number of swings

If we increase mass

The number of swings will:

Pennies

Test the Variable of Length

How do you think changing the length of the pendulum will affect the number of swings?

More swings? Fewer swings?

Same number?

- Each group will be given an envelope with different lengths of strings
- Handout – Swingers Picture Graph – each person
- Use the meter tape make the swinger the same way we made the standard swinger

Length Number of Swings

______________________________________________

200 cm

170 cm

120 cm

90 cm

70 cm

55 cm

- The longer the pendulum, the ____the swings.
- The shorter the pendulum, the _____the swings.
- The greater the number of swings, the _____the pendulum.
- The fewer the number of swings, the _____ the pendulum.

- Which variables made no difference in the number of swings?
- Which variable did make a difference in the number of swings?
- What variables might affect the number of cycles the pendulum makes in 15 seconds?

- As students come up with questions or ideas that suggest further investigation, you will ask them to write the idea on a piece of paper, which you will keep in a class folder.
- This will be a resource for students at the end of the module when they are choosing a project to investigate on their own.

- The x-axis (along the bottom) is reserved for the independent variable.
- What did I know before the experiment started?
- The y-axis (along the side) is reserved for the dependent variable.
- What did I find out as a result of doing the experiment?

- Read the t-table on the Swingers Picture graph to find the length and number of swings of the first swingers
- Find the number along the (x axis) horizontal line that represents the length of the first swinger
- Run your finger up that line until you come to the horizontal line representing the number of swings made by the first swinger
- Make a pencil dot on that intersection
- Repeat the procedure for the rest of the swingers

- How can you predict how many swings an 80-cm pendulum will make in 15 seconds?

- Two-coordinate graph- shows the outcome of a series of experiments when a variable is changed by steps.

- Swinging through History?

- What are lifeboats and how are they used?

6 paper cups

Sponge

2 books

Pencil

Permanent marking pens

Scissors

50 Pennies- 1983-later

1 Meter tape

2 Plastic cups

1 Syringe 50ml

1 Basin

Variable Journal

Student Sheet #8

Student Sheet #9

- Test your boat
- In your journal write a list of variables that might affect the number of passengers supported by their boat.

- Boats of slightly different size.
- Distribution of passengers in the boat.
- Gentle versus reckless placement of passengers.
- Condition of the sea.

- How could you check the variable of boat size to find out if in fact all the boats are identical?

- The greatest amount of fluid a container can hold is its capacity.

- Using the handout Measuring Lifeboat Capacity measure the capacity of your 3cm boat

- All new boats should be a different size.
- No shorter than 2 cm
- No taller than 4 cm
- Name each boat.
- Find the capacity of each boat.
- Write the name and capacity of each boat on its side.

- In a controlled experiment, all of the variables are controlled, or kept constant, except one, so that the experimenter can observe the effect of that one variable on the experimental outcome.
- You will conduct controlled experiments to find out how the variable of capacity affects the number of passengers a lifeboat can hold.

- Place pennies gently.
- Place pennies evenly.
- Don’t shake the basin.
- Dry pennies.
- Place the pennies with heads up.

- If you wanted to make a graph of the results of your lifeboat experiment, what are the two variables you would graph?
- Which variable did you know before the experiment started, the size of your boats or the number of passengers they hold?
- The independent variable goes on the x-axis.
- The dependent variable goes on the y-axis.

- Is there a relationship between the capacity of lifeboats and the number of passengers they hold?

- In a controlled experiment, all of the variables are controlled, or kept constant, except one, so that the experimenter can observe the effect of that one variable on the experimental outcome.
- You will conduct controlled experiments to find out how the variable of capacity affects the number of passengers a lifeboat can hold.

- Which boat held the greatest number of passengers?
- What variables make it possible for a boat to hold lots of passengers?
- What variables did you have to control?
- What is the relationship between the capacity of the boat and the number of passengers it can hold.
- If you had a new boat, could you use your graph to predict how many passengers it could hold?

- Record your results in part 3 of the Lifeboat Inspection sheet

- How were you able to predict the number of passengers a new boat would hold?
- Did any results surprise you? If so, what do you think happened?

- What variables might affect the number of passengers (pennies) a paper-cup boat can hold?

1-Foss Plane Construction Sheet

1-Jumbo Straw

1-Super Jumbo Straw

1-Propeller

1-Hook

1-Rubber Band

1-Sandpaper Piece

2-Craft Sticks

1-Scissors

- The FOSS plane flies along a piece of fishing line called a flight line.
- The FOSS plane and the flight line together are called the FOSS plane system.

- If you had a piece of fishing line, could you get your plane to fly the entire length of the line?

- 1- Fishing line 4 meters long
- 2- Chairs
- Duct tape (to attach to back of chairs)
- 1 Zip lock bag
- Placing your chairs avoid other groups or traffic flow.

- Get your FOSS plane to fly.
- Fly your plane the entire length of the line.
- Figure out the minimum number of winds needed to fly your plane the length of the line.

- Airplane pilots keep records of every flight in a logbook. Pilot record information such as date, time, weather, number of passenger, mass of cargo, elevation and performance of the aircraft.
- Handout – FLIGHT LOGS

- How many winds of the propeller do you think it would take to fly your plane halfway down the line?

- mass
- rubber bands
- slope of the line
- tension of the line
- propeller changes
- lubricants
- fan (wind shear)

- Select a variable that can be change step-by-step.
- Choose a standard number of winds to put on the propeller for all of the experiments from this point on.
- Measure the distance the unmodified plane will go when flown with the standard number of winds.
- Get the materials needed to conduct the experiment.

- Part I: Assemble Flip Sticks

- Corks
- rubber stoppers
- extra craft stick for pressing down on the flip stick

- When you were flipping corks and rubber stoppers, did they always fly the same distance?
- Discuss the reasons for the different outcomes.

- Prepare 2 aluminum balls.
- One is made from a piece is 20 cm long.
- The other is made from a piece10 cm long.

- How high can you flip your aluminum ball?
- Describe how you set up your flipper system to achieve the highest flip.

- How far can you flip your aluminum ball?
- Describe your setup of the flipper system when you achieved the greatest distance.

- Launch angle - O (flat)
- Position - launch object between the two short sticks.
- Object - large foil ball.
- Flip - stick position-all the way in.
- Energy - flip stick depressed all the way.

- Spacers. Pennies are used for spacers.
- Flip Stick Length. The flip stick can be adjusted from 0 cm (all the way in) to 5 cm (all the way out).
- Angle. The angle brace can be set at angles from 0 degrees (flat) to 40 degrees in 10 degree increments.

- Prove It