Human rights
Download
1 / 25

Human Rights - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 161 Views
  • Updated On :

Human Rights 人權. US Congress most vocal critic of China's human rights policy US presidents more cautious. 美國國會多是中國人權政策的批評家 美國總統較謹慎 PRC leaders care about China's face in world Also fear that US may retaliate with trade sanctions 中國領導層注意中國在國際的面子, 也擔心美國以貿易制裁報復.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Human Rights ' - jon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Human rights l.jpg
Human Rights人權

  • US Congress most vocal critic of China's human rights policy

  • US presidents more cautious.

  • 美國國會多是中國人權政策的批評家

  • 美國總統較謹慎

  • PRC leaders care about China's face in world

  • Also fear that US may retaliate with trade sanctions

  • 中國領導層注意中國在國際的面子,

  • 也擔心美國以貿易制裁報復


Slide2 l.jpg

  • 1989-2000, many members of Congress sought cutoff of China’s MFN status

    從1989至2000年,許多國會成員企圖取消中國的貿易最惠國待遇

  • China relied on US business interests to argue against cutoff

    Argued h.r.’s are internal matter

    中國根據美國的商業利益來反對取消

    認為人權屬於中國內政

  • PRC party to 50% of major h.r. treaties

    中國是50%人權條約的成員


Slide3 l.jpg

  • China has criticized h.r. situations in other countries

    中國批評其他國家的人權狀況

  • PRC argues h.r.’s are subject to legitimate limitations; but critics say fundamental rights cannot be limited

    中國認為人權問題的合理性是有限制的;但批評者認為基本的權利不能被限制

  • China made some concessions to prevent MFN [Most Favored nation; now called Normal Trade Relations or NRT] cutoff. Clinton announced delinking of trade & h.r. in 1994

    中國為防止取消最惠國待遇 [現稱:正常貿易關係 NRT] 而做了一些讓步,克林頓在1994年宣佈不將貿易與人權掛鉤


Slide4 l.jpg

  • In 2001, Congress approved Permanent Normal Trade Relations for China because China was about to join the World Trade Organization. WTO requires members states grant each other NTR for WTO rules to apply to those states

    2001年國會給予中國永久正常貿易關係地位,原因是中國準備加入世貿。世貿要求其成員國相互給予正常貿易關係地位,以致世貿的條例能適用於這些國家。


Slide5 l.jpg

  • Congress also created Congressional-Executive Commission on China to monitor h.r. questions.

    美國國會也創立國會中國問題執行委員會來監察中國人權問題

  • China takes h.r.-related threats seriously; has issued white papers on progress in h.r.

    中國嚴肅地對待人權有關的威脅;發表白皮書論及人權進展

  • PRC constantly defends its h.r. record; claims full civil & political rights provided

    中國為其人權紀錄辯護;宣稱提供了完全的公民及政治權利


Slide6 l.jpg

  • Argues that if h.r. flawed, it’s because of less development, caused by having a big population & past foreign oppression of China

    爭論是否有人權缺陷,原因是經濟不發達因為人口眾多及外來壓迫

  • China holds that West and East have different concepts of h.r.: West favors individual rights and freedoms; East favors nation’s interests & stability

    認為東西方有不同的人權概念:西方傾向個人的權利和自由;

    東方傾向國家的權益和穩定

  • It blames the West’s stress on individual freedom for high crime rate; but China’s crime rate has also gone up

    譴責西方強調個人自由帶來高犯罪率;但中國犯罪率也在上升


Slide7 l.jpg

  • It argues that only when China reaches high level of economic development can civil & political rights be provided

    認為只有當中國達到經濟高度發達的水平時才能提供公民及

    政治權利

  • China says abuses occur only when officials disobey the law and they do so ought of ignorance

    認為侵犯人權只發生在官員違法時和因為愚昧無知

  • PRC criticizes h.r. practices in US, particularly race & sex discrimination and poverty. Many criticisms accurate

    中國評論美國的人權實況,特別是種族和性別歧視及貧困,

    許多批評是正確的


Slide8 l.jpg

  • US also violates the h.r.’s of people in other countries through support of repressive regimes & through intervention

    美國也通過干涉和支持鎮壓型政權來侵犯其他國家人民的權利

  • Every year until 1998 US tried to have PRC h.r.’s record condemned in Human Rights Commission

    1998年以前的每一年裡,美國都嘗試在人權委員會譴責中國的人權紀錄

  • US tried again in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2004, but had to do so without support of other major states

    美國嘗試在1999,2000, 2001和2004年,但這種嘗試卻沒有其他主要國家的支持


Slide9 l.jpg

  • In 2002, US wasn’t on Human Rights Commission and in 2003 US decided not to seek China’s condemnation

    在2002年,美國不在人權委員會並且在2003年決定不向中國人權紀錄發出譴責

  • In 2004, US introduced resolution to condemn China. It again failed. China linked the resolution to US elections.

    在2004年, 美國引入譴責中國人權問題的決議.但它再一次失敗了.中國方面將此決議與美國的選舉形勢聯繫在了一起.


Slide10 l.jpg

  • In 2005, US didn US decided not to seek China’s condemnation’t introduce a resolution. The US said it received several important concessions from China because it threatened to introduce a resolution in the Human Rights Commission.

    在2005年,美國沒有引入任何的決議.美國方面稱,中方在得知美方將向人權委員會引入決議後, 做出了一系列重要的妥協.

  • Some PRC dissidents want US to put criticisms in UN framework, stress rule of law. NGOs are also concerned with PRC.

    一些中國異見人士希望美國在聯合國範疇內作出批評,強調法治.非政府組織關注中國


Slide11 l.jpg

  • Amnesty International reports on h.r. in China focus on political imprisonments, arbitrary arrests and torture

    國際特赦組織的中國人權報告將焦點放在政治監禁,恣意拘捕及虐待

  • NPC ended long periods of pre-trial detention, created presumption of innocence, and gave right to consult lawyer after arrest

    NPC結束了長期預審拘留,起用無罪假設和給予逮捕後咨詢律師權


Slide12 l.jpg

  • Complaints persist about long sentences, poor conditions for prisoners; prison-made exports, death penalty, organs from executed prisoners. PRC denies all charges

    對於長判期,給予囚犯的條件不足,勞改產品出口,死刑,處決犯的器官等的持續指責,中國否認所有的指控

  • US politicians focus mainly on political rights: lack of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, monopoly of CCP

    美國政客主要關注政治權利:缺少言論自由,出版自由,中共專政


Slide13 l.jpg

  • PRC now has democratic village level elections; many non-CCP members win office.

    中國現在已開展鄉村層次的民主選舉;許多非黨員當選舉

  • US leaders concerned about lack of religious freedom, particularly for Christians; most worship unhindered, foreign evangelists tolerated

    美國領導人關注宗教自由的不足,特別是基督徒;大多數崇拜未被阻止,容忍外國傳道者


Slide14 l.jpg

  • Since 1999, there has been concern about PRC government campaign against Falun Gong. Some members of US Congress have supported Falun Gong lawsuits against PRC and its leaders. US State Dept. opposes such lawsuits.

    自1999年,輿論就關注中國政府打擊法輪功的運動。一些美國國會議員支持法輪功對中國政府的訴訟。美國聯邦政府部門卻反對此等訴訟

  • Restrictions on Tibetan Buddhism also area of concern for US Congress

    對藏傳佛教的限制也是美國國會關心所在


Slide15 l.jpg

  • Women’s rights focus in last few years, e.g. sale of women, female infanticide

    婦女權益在近年受關注,比如 賣婦女,殺女嬰

  • H.R. questions in suppression of minority independence movements; lack of minority leadership and de-culturation of minorities

    在鎮壓少數民族獨立運動中的人權問題;缺乏少數民族領導及輕視少數民族文化


Slide16 l.jpg

  • Because China has indicated support for US war against terrorism, US has listed one Xinjiang separatist organization as a terrorist group

    因為中國明確提出支持美國反對恐怖主義,美國已將一新疆分離組織列作恐怖組織

  • US has refused in 2005 to send back to China Uygur separatists that the US captured in Afghanistan, when they were fighting for the Taleban and al-Qaeda.

    在2005年,美國拒絕將其在阿富汗抓獲的中國新疆維吾爾分離分子送返回中國.被抓獲時, 他們正在為塔利班和基地組織工作.


Slide17 l.jpg

  • Some members of Congress focus on family planning issue terrorism, US has listed one Xinjiang separatist organization as a terrorist group

    一些國會成員關注計劃生育問題

  • Claim that forced abortions still carried out to meet family planning quotas

    為了達到生育指標,一直主張實行強制流產


Slide18 l.jpg

  • US State Dept. withholds funds Congress has voted to provided United Nations Population Fund

    美國聯邦政府拒絕撥款議會贊成給予聯合國人口基金

  • China’s national policy is to use fines, rather than physical compulsion to enforce family planning rules. There are indications that as population becomes more educated and urban, it wants smaller families.

    中國的策略是使用罰款的手段而不是實際的強迫去實施計劃生育政策.有跡象表明, 當人們的教育和都市化程度變高時, 他們會傾向於成立較”小“的家庭.


Slide19 l.jpg

  • There have been a number of liberalizations in family planning, especially in cities, where single children who marry each other can now have multiple children.

    目前, 計劃生育政策已有了一些鬆動,尤其是在城市中,如果夫妻雙方都是獨生子女, 那麼這個家庭就可以有一個以上的孩子.

  • US unions argue that workers’ rights violated in China by lack of independent unions and no right to strike or bargain

    美國工會認為中國工人的權利受侵犯,因缺乏獨立的工會和沒有罷工權或討價還價權


Slide20 l.jpg

  • US presidents against using sanctions. Clinton used “constructive engagement” to achieve “peaceful evolution”

    美國總統反對使用制裁手段。克林頓採用“建設性伙伴關係”以達致“和平演變”

  • George W. Bush administration, after 9/11/01, used private diplomacy more than public denunciations. Received promises from PRC in 2002 and 2003 on various human rights issues. US complains that China had taken no action to implement its promises

    喬治布殊的行政手段,在2001年9月11日後,較多採取私下協商而非公開譴責。接受了中國在2002年和2003年在各人權事務上的許諾。美國投訴中國並沒有履行其承諾。


Slide21 l.jpg

  • Critics say dialogue with PRC produces nothing and that mere economic growth and trade does not guarantee h.r.’s

    批評家認為與中國對話沒有作用而且經濟增長及貿易不能保證人權進展

  • Some changes in PRC h.r.’s, e.g. right to sue officials & win compensation if rights violated

    中國人權的一些變化,比如,如果權利受到侵犯,有權控告官員及獲得賠償


Slide22 l.jpg

  • China has cooperated with US in changing family planning practices and judicial system

    中國與美國合作,改善計劃生育措施及司法系統

  • Some in US argue that only minimal cooperation can be expected; should ask China to conform to international obligations and wait for change

    美國部份人認為只能期望最低限度的合作;應要求中國遵守國際義務及等待轉變


Slide23 l.jpg

  • New Chinese regime could be more authoritarian and nationalistic than present regime

    中國新的體制可能會比現行體制更極權和更富民族主義色彩

  • Others in US argue that US may be focusing too much on political rights; a lot of “democracy”in world is fake

    另一部份認為美國可能是太過注意政治權了;世界上存 在許多假“民主”


Slide24 l.jpg

  • Most PRC scholars now admit that foreigners have right to criticize h.r.’s practices if

    1. The state agrees to uphold a treaty

    2. Violations are particularly bad

    3. Violations affect neighbors

    大多數中國學者承認外國人有權評論中國人權現況,如果

    1. 國家同意遵守條約

    2. 違反人權的情況惡劣

    3. 違反人權的情況影響鄰國


Slide25 l.jpg


ad