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Human Rights - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Human Rights 人權. US Congress most vocal critic of China's human rights policy US presidents more cautious. 美國國會多是中國人權政策的批評家 美國總統較謹慎 PRC leaders care about China's face in world Also fear that US may retaliate with trade sanctions 中國領導層注意中國在國際的面子, 也擔心美國以貿易制裁報復.

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Human Rights人權

  • US Congress most vocal critic of China's human rights policy

  • US presidents more cautious.

  • 美國國會多是中國人權政策的批評家

  • 美國總統較謹慎

  • PRC leaders care about China's face in world

  • Also fear that US may retaliate with trade sanctions

  • 中國領導層注意中國在國際的面子,

  • 也擔心美國以貿易制裁報復

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  • 1989-2000, many members of Congress sought cutoff of China’s MFN status


  • China relied on US business interests to argue against cutoff

    Argued h.r.’s are internal matter



  • PRC party to 50% of major h.r. treaties


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  • China has criticized h.r. situations in other countries


  • PRC argues h.r.’s are subject to legitimate limitations; but critics say fundamental rights cannot be limited


  • China made some concessions to prevent MFN [Most Favored nation; now called Normal Trade Relations or NRT] cutoff. Clinton announced delinking of trade & h.r. in 1994

    中國為防止取消最惠國待遇 [現稱:正常貿易關係 NRT] 而做了一些讓步,克林頓在1994年宣佈不將貿易與人權掛鉤

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  • In 2001, Congress approved Permanent Normal Trade Relations for China because China was about to join the World Trade Organization. WTO requires members states grant each other NTR for WTO rules to apply to those states


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  • Congress also created Congressional-Executive Commission on China to monitor h.r. questions.


  • China takes h.r.-related threats seriously; has issued white papers on progress in h.r.


  • PRC constantly defends its h.r. record; claims full civil & political rights provided


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  • Argues that if h.r. flawed, it’s because of less development, caused by having a big population & past foreign oppression of China


  • China holds that West and East have different concepts of h.r.: West favors individual rights and freedoms; East favors nation’s interests & stability



  • It blames the West’s stress on individual freedom for high crime rate; but China’s crime rate has also gone up


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  • It argues that only when China reaches high level of economic development can civil & political rights be provided



  • China says abuses occur only when officials disobey the law and they do so ought of ignorance


  • PRC criticizes h.r. practices in US, particularly race & sex discrimination and poverty. Many criticisms accurate



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  • US also violates the h.r.’s of people in other countries through support of repressive regimes & through intervention


  • Every year until 1998 US tried to have PRC h.r.’s record condemned in Human Rights Commission


  • US tried again in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2004, but had to do so without support of other major states

    美國嘗試在1999,2000, 2001和2004年,但這種嘗試卻沒有其他主要國家的支持

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  • In 2002, US wasn’t on Human Rights Commission and in 2003 US decided not to seek China’s condemnation


  • In 2004, US introduced resolution to condemn China. It again failed. China linked the resolution to US elections.

    在2004年, 美國引入譴責中國人權問題的決議.但它再一次失敗了.中國方面將此決議與美國的選舉形勢聯繫在了一起.

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  • In 2005, US didn US decided not to seek China’s condemnation’t introduce a resolution. The US said it received several important concessions from China because it threatened to introduce a resolution in the Human Rights Commission.

    在2005年,美國沒有引入任何的決議.美國方面稱,中方在得知美方將向人權委員會引入決議後, 做出了一系列重要的妥協.

  • Some PRC dissidents want US to put criticisms in UN framework, stress rule of law. NGOs are also concerned with PRC.


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  • Amnesty International reports on h.r. in China focus on political imprisonments, arbitrary arrests and torture


  • NPC ended long periods of pre-trial detention, created presumption of innocence, and gave right to consult lawyer after arrest


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  • Complaints persist about long sentences, poor conditions for prisoners; prison-made exports, death penalty, organs from executed prisoners. PRC denies all charges


  • US politicians focus mainly on political rights: lack of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, monopoly of CCP


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  • PRC now has democratic village level elections; many non-CCP members win office.


  • US leaders concerned about lack of religious freedom, particularly for Christians; most worship unhindered, foreign evangelists tolerated


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  • Since 1999, there has been concern about PRC government campaign against Falun Gong. Some members of US Congress have supported Falun Gong lawsuits against PRC and its leaders. US State Dept. opposes such lawsuits.


  • Restrictions on Tibetan Buddhism also area of concern for US Congress


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  • Women’s rights focus in last few years, e.g. sale of women, female infanticide

    婦女權益在近年受關注,比如 賣婦女,殺女嬰

  • H.R. questions in suppression of minority independence movements; lack of minority leadership and de-culturation of minorities


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  • Because China has indicated support for US war against terrorism, US has listed one Xinjiang separatist organization as a terrorist group


  • US has refused in 2005 to send back to China Uygur separatists that the US captured in Afghanistan, when they were fighting for the Taleban and al-Qaeda.

    在2005年,美國拒絕將其在阿富汗抓獲的中國新疆維吾爾分離分子送返回中國.被抓獲時, 他們正在為塔利班和基地組織工作.

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  • Some members of Congress focus on family planning issue terrorism, US has listed one Xinjiang separatist organization as a terrorist group


  • Claim that forced abortions still carried out to meet family planning quotas


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  • US State Dept. withholds funds Congress has voted to provided United Nations Population Fund


  • China’s national policy is to use fines, rather than physical compulsion to enforce family planning rules. There are indications that as population becomes more educated and urban, it wants smaller families.

    中國的策略是使用罰款的手段而不是實際的強迫去實施計劃生育政策.有跡象表明, 當人們的教育和都市化程度變高時, 他們會傾向於成立較”小“的家庭.

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  • There have been a number of liberalizations in family planning, especially in cities, where single children who marry each other can now have multiple children.

    目前, 計劃生育政策已有了一些鬆動,尤其是在城市中,如果夫妻雙方都是獨生子女, 那麼這個家庭就可以有一個以上的孩子.

  • US unions argue that workers’ rights violated in China by lack of independent unions and no right to strike or bargain


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  • US presidents against using sanctions. Clinton used “constructive engagement” to achieve “peaceful evolution”


  • George W. Bush administration, after 9/11/01, used private diplomacy more than public denunciations. Received promises from PRC in 2002 and 2003 on various human rights issues. US complains that China had taken no action to implement its promises


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  • Critics say dialogue with PRC produces nothing and that mere economic growth and trade does not guarantee h.r.’s


  • Some changes in PRC h.r.’s, e.g. right to sue officials & win compensation if rights violated


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  • China has cooperated with US in changing family planning practices and judicial system


  • Some in US argue that only minimal cooperation can be expected; should ask China to conform to international obligations and wait for change


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  • New Chinese regime could be more authoritarian and nationalistic than present regime


  • Others in US argue that US may be focusing too much on political rights; a lot of “democracy”in world is fake

    另一部份認為美國可能是太過注意政治權了;世界上存 在許多假“民主”

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  • Most PRC scholars now admit that foreigners have right to criticize h.r.’s practices if

    1. The state agrees to uphold a treaty

    2. Violations are particularly bad

    3. Violations affect neighbors


    1. 國家同意遵守條約

    2. 違反人權的情況惡劣

    3. 違反人權的情況影響鄰國

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