Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization
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FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires. Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels. Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power.

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Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769)

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Mech. handloom (1733) Could double textile prod.

British textile prod. & profits soar

Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Basis for the Industrial Revolution (FC. 111)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Why not China?

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Why not China?

-Irrig. Authoritarian & rigid

 Tech seen as a threat

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Why not China?

-Irrig. Authoritarian & rigid

 Tech seen as a threat


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Cistercian monks do what?


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Labor shortage so far from society  ?

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Grk. waterwheels

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Grk. waterwheels

-Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Grk. waterwheels

-Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

-Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Grk. waterwheels

-Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

-Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

-Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Q: Why not China?

-Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

Tech seen as a threat

Grk. waterwheels

-Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

-Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

-Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Breast wheel combining the undershot location with the overshot’s better efficiency


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

In the early 1800s many Americans were experimenting with different new waterwheel designs. One of these men, Calvin Wing of Maine, patented the reaction wheel in October 1830.

It consisted of a hollow iron disk with a large hole on one side to allow pressurized water in from a penstock and six angled holes on the rim to allow water to exit. The force of water squirting through these six angled jets turned the wheel in reaction to the force of the exiting water.

The reaction wheel, in some ways the predecessor of the modern turbine, operated on water pressure obtained by confining the water as it fell. It was fairly efficient, could operate in a wide range of water levels, including flooded back-water conditions.

Its cast iron construction made it extremely durable, so it didn’t rot like a wooden wheel. It was also compact, achieving high speeds and generating a lot of power while taking up little space and eliminating the need for costly gearing. It did require precision manufacturing and installation, and thus was somewhat expensive compared to a simple wooden wheel. The 1830s miller who bought one was taking a risk and making an investment in new technology.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Modern Hydroelectric Turbine

Water power is still a vital source of energy in the 21st century. However, instead of generating mechanical energy to be used on-site, the energy of falling water is converted to electrical energy and transmitted for use elsewhere.

In a turbine water is smoothly funneled into a restricted space where it turns the turbine’s blades which are connected to a gear box and electrical generator.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

What new sorts of jobs

Can now be done?


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Here the waterwheel performs two tasks, one with the crank and one with the cam. The crank in the back works a bellows to stoke the smith’s furnace. The cam on the right (D) operates a trip hammer (E).


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Sawmill


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Wilkinson’s cylinder borer (1775)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

This milling complex at Arles in Roman Gaul had 16 waterwheels that could mill enough grain to feed 80,000 people. Since the local population was probably only about 10,000, we figure the milling complex at Arles was the center of a vast redistribution network, indicating the large scale of trade in the Roman Empire.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Two watermills operating between bridge abutments. Notice the spiral shaped millstone in the foreground being taken in the replace one that is worn down.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The numerous depictions of waterwheels in European art are further evidence of their ubiquity.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

A horse-powered treadmill in Belgium for threshing wheat


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank.

1


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank. When the tank is full and the tide goes out the higher pressure in the holding tank forces the gate shut (2).

1

2

2


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank. When the tank is full and the tide goes out the higher pressure in the holding tank forces the gate shut (2). Then a second gate can be opened to let water down to turn a water wheel (3).

1

2

2

3


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The first mechanical clock was built during the Sung Dynasty in China around 900 C.E. It was an astrological/astronomical clock with seven faces to mechanically track the motion of the sun, moon, and five known planets at that time (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn).


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

It was also a water clock with sophisticated machinery to regulate the flow of water in order to keep time. The clock was a royal monopoly to help emperors decide propitious times for acts of state, such as making war or peace. The emperors relied on it so much that, when an ambassador to the north reported that the heavenly bodies were not in line with the clock, the emperor replied that the clock was right and the sky was wrong.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Somehow, the idea and design of the Chinese clock made its way west, where an Italian, Giovanni di Dondi, built the most sophisticated clock of the Middle Ages between 1348 and 1364. Like the Chinese clock, it had 7 faces showing the movements of the sun, moon and five known planets. It had no hourly dials, which he said were too simple, and was so sophisticated that it wasn't duplicated until the 1800's. One difference from the Chinese model was that his clock was weight driven with a mechanical escapement system since water froze in the wintertime. There is a working model of di Dondi’s clock in the Smithsonian Institute.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The inner workings of a clock in Salisbury, England


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Clock fever

While some of the earliest European clocks, such as the town clock in Prague, continued to chart the heavens for astrological purposes, Europeans scaled them down just to keep daily time


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Is it us keeping time….

The first clock recorded as just striking equal hours was in Milan in the early 1300's. From then on, it was a matter of pride for every medieval town to have its own clock tower, and they appeared in rapid succession in Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), and Paris (1370).

Sighisoara,Romania

Milan

St Albans,

England

Ottery, England


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

…or time keeping us?

However, it was the clock in Paris that triggered a real turning point for Western Civilization in 1370 when Charles V of France ordered churches to ring their bells on the hour in coordination with the clocks, thus subordinating the Church’s schedule to that of secular business. While Charles may have thought that he was capturing time, to a large extent time was capturing us, tying us to ever more precise schedules over the coming centuries so we know exactly when we have to get up, be at work, eat lunch, get off work, pick up the kids at soccer practice, and get to watch our favorite TV show. I could continue this list, but I don’t have time.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Clocks and clock-like devices even started showing up in medieval art, indicating a more mechanistic view of the universe centuries before Newton’s work. Along those lines, there was an emerging cultural mindset that was tuned into mechanical principles and how to exploit them. Even more striking was an expectation, replacing the static unchanging view of the universe that such innovations would keep coming indefinitely. In short, people were starting to think in terms of something called progress.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

"Never will we find truth if we content ourselves with what is already known... Those things that have been written before us are not laws but guides. The truth is open to all, for it is not yet totally possessed."--Gilbert de Tournai (c.1200-1284)

"Not all the arts have been found; we shall never see an end of finding them. Everyday one could discover a new art...It is not 20 years since there was discovered the art of making eyeglasses which help one to see well, an art which is one of the best and most necessary in the world. And that is such a short time ago that a new art which had never before existed was invented..."--Fra Giordano (1306)

"We are as dwarfs mounted on the shoulders of giants, so that although we perceived many more things than they, it is not because our vision is more piercing or our stature higher, but because we are carried and elevated higher thanks to their gigantic size."--Bernard of Chartres (c.1115)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Problem with ripsaws?

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

What do they find to replace charcoal?

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Problem with deep shaft mines?

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

How do they deal with water seepage?

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Hiero of Alexandria’s aeropile, the first known steam engine. However, because of the abundance of cheap free & slave labor, the Greeks and Romans never exploited the potential usefulness of this invention.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

Larger bellows  ?

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

Finally able to do what?

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  •  30x production

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

More ideas for new uses of technology

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

A puddling furnace, as the name implies, gathers the molten iron into a puddle, exposing it to air pumped in from above which burns off extra carbon, giving a crude type of steel known as wrought iron


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  •  30x production

Importance for the industrial revolution?

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni diDondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  •  30x production

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Iron also made possible iron bridges with much longer spans than possible with masonry bridges


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Problem British texile ind’s had in 1700s?

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Mech. handloom (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Mech. handloom (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

1st invention?

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

impact on textile prod.?

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Flying shuttle (1733)impact on textile prod.?

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Mech. handloom (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Problem that slowed weaving & solution?

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Spinning Jenny (1760s)How much faster?

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The Evolution of the Textile Mill


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The first new technology to revolutionize the textile industry was John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733), the funny little thing labeled I in the figure above and also shown above. On wider looms, a second person was needed to take the shuttle with the weft thread across the warp threads. The wheeled shuttle (as Kay called it) could be thrown across the loom by one weaver at “a speed which cannot be imagined, so great that the shuttle can only be seen like a tiny cloud which disappears the same instant.”—Roland de la Platière, EncyclopédieMéthodique


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Not only did the flying shuttle vastly increase the speed of weaving and cut in half the number of weavers needed per loom, it effectively doubled the number of looms that could be worked by a number of weavers, thus more than doubling production.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Now the weak link in production was the spinning wheel, which could only spin one thread at a time, although we should keep in mind that it had revolutionized textile production in its own way when it was introduced in the Middle Ages.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

In 1764 James Hargreave invented the spinning jenny (below), which could spin seven threads at once, although with the right amount of power, it could spin a hundred, or even a thousand, threads at a time.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Four years later, Richard Arkwright solved that problem with a much larger spinning machine, the spinning frame. However, it was so big it had to be powered by a water wheel, and thus came to be known as the spinning frame or water frame.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Until now, both spinning and weaving had been handled in homes through a decentralized system known as the cottage industry. Women traditionally would do the spinning, while men did the weaving. However, the water frame was too big for individual cottages, so spinning was moved into factories that could make full use of adjacent waterpower.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

For the first time, families involved in making textiles were split up, the women working in factories and the men working on looms at home. Since these spinning factories looked like regular water mills for milling grain, they came to be called textile mills. For this reason, and his use of clocks to regulate workers, Arkwright is often credited with inventing the factory system.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The Carding Mill

Before wool could be spun into yarn for knitting or weaving into cloth, it had to be brushed, or carded. Richard Arkwright and James Hargreaveswere also instrumental in mechanizing this tedious task with a machine that could card as much wool in a minute as a hand-carder could do in an hour.

Since 1773, carding machines have had the same basic design as they do today. They consist of a series of round brushes that align wool fibers as the wool passes from one end of the machine to the other. Each cylinder is covered with bent iron wires, which grab wool in one direction and release it in another.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

A cross-section of a mill below shows how its waterwheel powered the factory’s looms through a branching series of drive shafts and pulley belts.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

An interior view of the series of drive shafts and pulley belts driving the machines


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

From Looms to Computers

In 1728, a new weaving device, : the Falcon’s loom (left) used the Frenchman BasileBouchon's invention of perforated paper rolls, the holes operating as binary on/off switches to determine if a particular color thread was used in that row of fabric. A century later Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented an automatic loom (right) using punched cards to control the patterns in the fabrics in a similar way. Despite worker riots against the replacement of people by these machines, virtually all industrial looms were using this system by 1900. Not only that, it was being applied to other industrial uses, such as riveting patterns on the large steel ships bringing millions of immigrants to America. Just in time, someone found another use for this concept.

90741771


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The Hollerith machine (1890)

The 1890 US census provided the impetus for another step toward inventing the computer. Because of the huge influx of immigrants, people figured the 1890 census wouldn’t be finished before the 1900 census came around. To the rescue came the Hollerith machine. Using punch cards like those designed for Jacquard Looms, census takers would punch out chads on the appropriate places for numbers of family members, males, females, etc. Back at the census bureau, secretaries placed the card in an electronic machine with contact points for each space on the card. When the lever was lowered, only tabs for places with missing chads would complete the electronic circuit by touching the electrified plate underneath the card. This would automatically register the appropriate number on a counter. Like the Jacquard loom, this was using a basic binary, on-off, concept that is still central to computer design.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The history of mechanical calculators, forefathers of the computer, goes back to 1642 when Blaise Pascal created an adding machine, the Pascalene(below) that automatically carried digits from one position to the next. It had several dials that could be turned with a stylus. Underlying gears turned as each digit was dialed in, the cumulative total displayed in a window above the "keyboard". However, Pascalenes remained little more than curiosity pieces in private parlors until the debut of Thomas De Colmar’s Arithmometer in 1820. Able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide, it was the first commercially successful calculator, being the model for calculators into the 1900s.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Babbage’s Difference Machine.

The Englishman Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was obsessed with using the steam engine to power a device that would calculate navigational, celestial, and mathematical tables. From 1822 to 1849 he worked on the design for his Difference Machine, which could do four functions (add, subtract, multiply, and divide). He even got a grant from the British government, probably the first government grant for researching computers. Although he never built one, he is often considered the father of the computer. In 1991, to mark the bicentennial of Babbage’s birth, a working Difference Machine (left) was built. To prove that it was feasible to build such a machine in the 19th century, the project used only the technology available then.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

British textile prod.?

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni diDondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

British textile prod. & profits soar

Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Problem with powering these factories?

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

British textile prod. & profits soar

Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

British textile prod. & profits soar

Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Solution?


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The Newcomen Engine used for pumping water out of mines. Unfortunately, it was so inefficient, it used up nearly as much coal as was being mined.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

The main problem with the Newcomen engine was it had only 1 cylinder for heating and cooling, making it very inefficient since so much energy was wasted in repeatedly reheating and recoolingthat one chamber.

When the steam valve (green) opens, steam (pink) from the boiler (A) is injected into the cylinder driving the piston up.

When the cylinder is full of steam and the piston is in the up position, the steam valve shuts and the the cold water valve (red) opens, letting cold water (blue) into the cylinder.

The cold water cools and condenses the steam (now purple) in the cylinder, reducing the pressure and pulling down the piston.

Repeat as needed.

Steam

valve

Cold Water

valve


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

Suction pump

Valve

Cylinder

Suction pump

Piston

Cylinder

Condenser

Cylinder

Cylinder

Piston

2nd Cylinder

1. Steam (red) drives piston (brown) down.

2. As the piston goes down, it pulls the suction pump (left) up, drawing up water (blue).

3. A valve opens allowing steam down into the condenser. As steam condenses, pressure in the cylinder drops, allowing the heavier suction pump to descend and pump water into the container (far left).

At the same time, the descending suction pump pulls the piston in the 2nd cylinder up, releasing condensed water into a smaller container (center)

The major innovation of James Watts’ engine was having two cylinders, one for heating and one for cooling. Which saved considerable amounts of fuel by not having to heat and cool the same cylinder.


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769)

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

British textile prod. & profits soar

Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)


Fc 110 the technological background to industrialization

FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • Q: Why not China?

  • -Irrig Need authoritarian govt.

  • Tech seen as a threat

  • Grk. waterwheels

  • -Horiz-1hp 10% efficient

  • -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

  • -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

  • 500 Cistercian houses by 1300,

  • some w/5 or more mills

  • - Cam & crank

  •  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind

  • glass, polish metal spin silk; bore

  • holes; pound hemp, flax, paper,

  • sugar, & malt

  • - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

  • - 5624 mills in Sax. Eng 1/50 fam's

  • - “Lord”= loaf giver

  • -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

  • - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km

  • - Other power sources

  • - 120 windmills by Ypres

  • - Tidal mills

  • 1690 - 80k flour, 15k indus & 500

  • iron mills in France

  • -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology

  • - Giovanni di Dondi- 1st Eur. clock

  • -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354),

  • Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362),

  • Paris (1370)

  • 1370- Charles V of Fr orders bells

  • to ring acc. to clock, not sun

  • - Grks invent steam eng. Not used

  • - Rolling & puddling stronger iron

  • - 30x production

Develop coke from coal for hotter fires

Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels

Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power

More ideas for new uses of technology

Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s

Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769)

Larger bellows  can get hotter fires

Finally able to smelt iron completely

Stronger & more metal for building steam engines

Ripsaws cut more wood deforest Br.

New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods

Spinning Jenny (1760s) Spun 7X threads

Flying shuttle (1733) Could double textile prod.

British textile prod. & profits soar

Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe

Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines

Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

Basis for the Industrial Revolution (FC. 111)


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