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Democracy Survives the Persian War: Stoa of Athenians, Delphi, 479. The Athenians dedicated the stoa, and the arm[s a]nd the ships’ prows which they took from the ene[mies]. Democracy in Action: First Response. 479/8: Athenians rebuild their walls. Themistoklean Wall, 479 BCE.

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Democracy Survives the Persian War: Stoa of Athenians, Delphi, 479

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Democracy survives the persian war stoa of athenians delphi 479 l.jpg

Democracy Survives the Persian War: Stoa of Athenians, Delphi, 479

The Athenians dedicated the stoa, and the arm[s a]nd the ships’ prows which they took from the ene[mies].


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Democracy in Action: First Response

479/8: Athenians rebuild their walls


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Themistoklean Wall, 479 BCE

Traces of the Themistoklean Walls in the Kerameikos


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Democracy Evolves: Athens Creates the Delian League

Membership:

Athens & Attica

Amphipolis in Thrace

Thessaly

Aegean islands

coastal poleis

Hellespont, Propontis, Black Sea

Management:

Aristeides, hellenotamiai

Assessment & payment:

Men; ships or phoros


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Tribute List ca. 450 BCE


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Democracy in Action: Securing the Aegean Sea

477-471: First activities in the northern Aegean by Kimon son of Miltiades:

“No one humbled the Great King [Xerxes] more than Kimon. He gave him no rest when he had been driven from Greece, but followed hard on his heels before the barbarian could recover his breath and make a stand” (Plutarch Life of Kimon 12).

477: Thrace

475: Skyros

471: Karystos on Euboea

469-7: Karia, Lykia, southern Asia Minor


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Democracy in Action: The Power and Reach of Tragedy

472: Themistokles ostracized and dies in … Persia!

Reality Bites: the tragic stage, Aeschylus andThe Persians


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Democracy in Action: The Power and Reach of Tragedy

  • What do we know about tragedy?

    • Festival of Dionysus

    • Origins and forms

      • Production and acting: orkhestra, skene, parodoi; costumes, masks, orality; spectacle

      • Early, Aeschylean formalism

      • Stichomythia and rhetoric

      • The agon – see Orestes vs. the Furies

    • Mythology in tragedy

    • Intellectual issues

      • Sophistic argumentation

      • Human psychology

      • The nature of the gods

      • Nomos vs. physis


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Democracy in Action: Aeschylus’ Persians, lines 396-411: the battle joined

Messenger

At once with a united sweep and rush of oars

on order they stuck the deep water of the sea.

Swiftly all they became visible to see.

At first the right wing in good battle order

led the array but then the whole fleet

began the attack and at the same time could be heard

a great cry: "Children of the Hellenes, advance,

and set free your fatherland. Set free

your children, your wives, the temples of your gods

and ancestors' tombs. The struggle is for them all.“

From us a confused babble of the Persian tongue

rose up in reply and the time of planning was over.

At once ship against ship its bronze ram

struck. A ship of the Hellenes began

the attack and broke off completely the beak

of a Phoenician ship: ship rushed against ship.


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Democracy in Action: Aeschylus’ Persians, lines 284-289: Athens as enemy

Messenger

O name of Salamis, most hateful to hear!

O my! How I groan, remembering Athens!

  • Chorus

    • Hateful is Athens to its enemies! We, too, have cause to recall how many of the Persian women she made wives in vain, bereft of husbands.


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Democracy in Action: Aeschylus’ Persians, lines 821-822: the hubris of Xerxes

Ghost of Darius

For hubris, flowering to maturity, produces a blossom

of Atê, whence one reaps a harvest laden with tears.


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Democracy in Action: Allies Revolt from Athenian hubris

470: Naxosloss of fleet,walls; highertribute

465-3: Thasosloss of fleet,walls; highertribute


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Democracy in Action: The helot revolt and Kimon’s fall

465-459: Earthquake at Sparta: helot revolt; siege of Ithome

463/2: Kimon offers help to Sparta

463/2: Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus

462/1: Perikles institutes jury pay

462/1: Ephialtes assassinated

462/1: Kimon ostracized

460-450: Athens and her allies wage war with Sparta and her allies

(“First Peloponnesian War”)


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Democracy in Action: The Golden Age of Pericles


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Democracy in Action: the spread of Athenian imperialism

457: Archonship open to zeugitai

454: Treasury of the Delian League transferred to Athens from Delos

451: Pericles oversees passage of the Citizenship Law: citizens must be of two Athenian parents

449: Peace (of Kallias) with Persia

449: Congress Decree, and beginning of Periclean building program in Athens

446/5: Thirty Years’ Peace with Sparta

446/5: Standards decree – coinage, measures, weights standardized throughout the Empire


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