Chapter 10 kinetic theory of matter
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Chapter 10 Kinetic Theory of Matter. Objectives. 10.1 Compare characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas. 10.1 Relate the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas to the kinetic theory of matter 10.1 Distinguish among an amorphous material, liquid crystal, and plasma. Objectives.

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Objectives
Objectives

  • 10.1Compare characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas.

  • 10.1 Relate the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas to the kinetic theory of matter

  • 10.1 Distinguish among an amorphous material, liquid crystal, and plasma


Objectives1
Objectives

  • 10.2Interpret changes in temperature and changes of state of a substance in terms of the kinetic theory of matter

  • 10.2 Relate Kelvin and Celsius scale

  • 10.2 Analyze the effects of temperature and pressure on state changes

  • 10.2 Identify and understand types of intermolecular forces (LDF, Dipole-Dipole, Induced dipole) for molecules


Solid liquid gas revisited
Solid Liquid Gas Revisited

  • Solid: Fixed atomic position

  • Liquid/Gas: No fixed atomic position

  • Solid/Liquid: Atoms and molecules hold onto one another

  • Ideal Gas: No attraction at all for each other


Same temperature means same kinetic energy
Same Temperature means Same Kinetic Energy

  • All matter is in random and constant motion.

  • Not all matter or molecules within the same state of matter move at the same speed

  • The heavier a molecule is, the smaller its speed

    • Heavier gases diffuse slower than light gases

    • Heavier solid atoms jiggle less than lighter solids


Other states of matter
Other States of Matter

  • Liquid Crystals

    • When some solids melt, they don’t melt in all dimensions, remain a solid in at least one dimension. Some keep their shape in one of the three dimensions. These can then be manipulated by electric charge


Other states of matter1
Other States of Matter

  • Amorphous Materials

    • Have an incomplete, or random crystal lattice.

    • Examples include peanut butter, glass (when heated), cotton candy, pudding

    • Distinction can be difficult, many everyday objects you would consider solid could be classified in this way

    • If it is a mixture of solids/liquids (hard to tell), it is amorphous


Other states of matter2
Other States of Matter

  • Plasmas

    • Ionized gas

    • Most common in universe, not on earth

    • Occurs in stars




Temperature scales
Temperature Scales

  • Three Scales: Kelvins, Celsius, Fahrenheit

  • Kelvins Absolute Temperature Scale, it has a value of 0 at absolute 0

    • Important to use an absolute temperature scale in many calculations otherwise you would find negative volumes of air as well as other unfortunate mistypes in the calculator

    • Absolute Zero: All molecules have zero kinetic energy


Temperature scales1
Temperature Scales

  • Celsius  Has same slope as Kelvins, just starts below it 273 degrees.

    • Water freezes at 0 C and boils at 100 C, convenient

  • Fahrenheit  The American scale, based on ability to detect temperature change

  • Equation above is black, but should be green


Quick questions
Quick Questions

  • If the temperature of the room is at equilibrium, which state of matter in this room has the most kinetic average per particle?

  • Can an individual molecule touch absolute zero? Defend your rationale.

  • 373 Kelvin is what temperature Celsius?


Diffusion effusion
Diffusion/Effusion

  • Diffusion

    • Process of gas molecules spreading out due to random motion

  • Effusion

    • Process of gas molecules escaping through a tiny opening (why balloons go flat)

    • What goes flat faster: Helium or Normal filled balloon?


Distillation
Distillation

  • Technique used to separate mixtures based on difference in boiling points

    • Example: If water and another liquid are mixed, if you boil them, the one with a lower boiling point evaporates first until it is all gone before temperature rises again


Temperature is an average
Temperature is an Average

  • Therefore, some molecules are able to evaporate or melt before the temperature reaches that point

    • Some water evaporates (boils) before 100 C


Changes of states
Changes of States

  • Solid to Liquid  Melting

  • Solid to Gas  Sublimation

    • Dry Ice and Moth Balls

  • Liquid to Gas  Evaporation

  • Gas to Liquid  Condensation

  • Gas to Solid  Deposition

    • Frost

  • Liquid to Solid  Freezing


Vapor pressure
Vapor Pressure

  • How much of a liquid evaporates?

    • That is vapor pressure

    • The liquid molecules which turn to gas exert a pressure (as a gas does).

    • The warmer it gets, the more that evaporates, the larger the pressure

  • Polar molecules = Lower Vapor pressures

    • Have a difficult time escaping from one another


Vapor pressure1
Vapor Pressure

  • As the temperature increases (for the liquid), the vapor pressure increases as more and more of the liquid can evaporate


How much heat to evaporate
How much heat to evaporate?

  • Heat of Vaporization: Energy required to make a substance evaporate

    • Also energy released when condensing

  • Heat of Fusion: Energy required to make a substance melt

    • Also energy released when freezing


Lots of energy to evaporate
Lots of energy to evaporate

  • Why we feel cold after being in the pool


Some math
Some Math

  • How much energy will it take to melt 1.0 gram of ice? Heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g

  • If you have 200 grams of water that the ice melts in, what is the temperature change of the water? The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g


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