Chapter 10 kinetic theory of matter
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Chapter 10 Kinetic Theory of Matter. Objectives. 10.1 Compare characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas. 10.1 Relate the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas to the kinetic theory of matter 10.1 Distinguish among an amorphous material, liquid crystal, and plasma. Objectives.

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Chapter 10 Kinetic Theory of Matter

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Chapter 10 Kinetic Theory of Matter


  • 10.1Compare characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas.

  • 10.1 Relate the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas to the kinetic theory of matter

  • 10.1 Distinguish among an amorphous material, liquid crystal, and plasma


  • 10.2Interpret changes in temperature and changes of state of a substance in terms of the kinetic theory of matter

  • 10.2 Relate Kelvin and Celsius scale

  • 10.2 Analyze the effects of temperature and pressure on state changes

  • 10.2 Identify and understand types of intermolecular forces (LDF, Dipole-Dipole, Induced dipole) for molecules

Solid Liquid Gas Revisited

  • Solid: Fixed atomic position

  • Liquid/Gas: No fixed atomic position

  • Solid/Liquid: Atoms and molecules hold onto one another

  • Ideal Gas: No attraction at all for each other

Same Temperature means Same Kinetic Energy

  • All matter is in random and constant motion.

  • Not all matter or molecules within the same state of matter move at the same speed

  • The heavier a molecule is, the smaller its speed

    • Heavier gases diffuse slower than light gases

    • Heavier solid atoms jiggle less than lighter solids

Other States of Matter

  • Liquid Crystals

    • When some solids melt, they don’t melt in all dimensions, remain a solid in at least one dimension. Some keep their shape in one of the three dimensions. These can then be manipulated by electric charge

Other States of Matter

  • Amorphous Materials

    • Have an incomplete, or random crystal lattice.

    • Examples include peanut butter, glass (when heated), cotton candy, pudding

    • Distinction can be difficult, many everyday objects you would consider solid could be classified in this way

    • If it is a mixture of solids/liquids (hard to tell), it is amorphous

Other States of Matter

  • Plasmas

    • Ionized gas

    • Most common in universe, not on earth

    • Occurs in stars

Temperature and Particle Motion

Same Temperature, Different Gases

Temperature Scales

  • Three Scales: Kelvins, Celsius, Fahrenheit

  • Kelvins Absolute Temperature Scale, it has a value of 0 at absolute 0

    • Important to use an absolute temperature scale in many calculations otherwise you would find negative volumes of air as well as other unfortunate mistypes in the calculator

    • Absolute Zero: All molecules have zero kinetic energy

Temperature Scales

  • Celsius  Has same slope as Kelvins, just starts below it 273 degrees.

    • Water freezes at 0 C and boils at 100 C, convenient

  • Fahrenheit  The American scale, based on ability to detect temperature change

  • Equation above is black, but should be green

Quick Questions

  • If the temperature of the room is at equilibrium, which state of matter in this room has the most kinetic average per particle?

  • Can an individual molecule touch absolute zero? Defend your rationale.

  • 373 Kelvin is what temperature Celsius?


  • Diffusion

    • Process of gas molecules spreading out due to random motion

  • Effusion

    • Process of gas molecules escaping through a tiny opening (why balloons go flat)

    • What goes flat faster: Helium or Normal filled balloon?


  • Technique used to separate mixtures based on difference in boiling points

    • Example: If water and another liquid are mixed, if you boil them, the one with a lower boiling point evaporates first until it is all gone before temperature rises again

Temperature is an Average

  • Therefore, some molecules are able to evaporate or melt before the temperature reaches that point

    • Some water evaporates (boils) before 100 C

Changes of States

  • Solid to Liquid  Melting

  • Solid to Gas  Sublimation

    • Dry Ice and Moth Balls

  • Liquid to Gas  Evaporation

  • Gas to Liquid  Condensation

  • Gas to Solid  Deposition

    • Frost

  • Liquid to Solid  Freezing

Vapor Pressure

  • How much of a liquid evaporates?

    • That is vapor pressure

    • The liquid molecules which turn to gas exert a pressure (as a gas does).

    • The warmer it gets, the more that evaporates, the larger the pressure

  • Polar molecules = Lower Vapor pressures

    • Have a difficult time escaping from one another

Vapor Pressure

  • As the temperature increases (for the liquid), the vapor pressure increases as more and more of the liquid can evaporate

How much heat to evaporate?

  • Heat of Vaporization: Energy required to make a substance evaporate

    • Also energy released when condensing

  • Heat of Fusion: Energy required to make a substance melt

    • Also energy released when freezing

Lots of energy to evaporate

  • Why we feel cold after being in the pool

Some Math

  • How much energy will it take to melt 1.0 gram of ice? Heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g

  • If you have 200 grams of water that the ice melts in, what is the temperature change of the water? The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g

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