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### Evolution of Computing Tools計算工具的演化

Sai-Ping Li 李世炳

Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica

March 10, 2012

圓形石林--將巨大石塊豎立按圓形排列的紀念物，周圍環以土堤。建於史前時代，約從西元前3100年開始。坐落在英格蘭倫敦西南約80 英里處。

Stonehenge, which lies 13km north of Salisbury, England, is believed to have been an ancient form of calendar designed to capture the light from the summer solstice in a specific fashion.

Pebbles were used by the ancients for a variety of purposes. They are one of the earliest methods of counting using a physical aide.

最早期的計算方法，以數小石頭來幫助計算。

The abacus is one of the earliest devices to be used in calculation, and still in use, in various forms, around the world today.

算盤 --- 最古老的計算工具之一

計算板與算盤

The history of the abacus probably traced back to ancient Mesopotamia. The people probably drew lines on the ground and used pebbles to represent numbers and do calculations.

The counting board is a piece of wood, stone or metal with carved grooves or painted lines between which beads, pebbles or metal discs were moved. The abacus is a device, usually of wood (plastic, in recent times), having a frame that holds rods with freely-sliding beads mounted on them.

歷史上，計算板是一個便攜式的平面，通常由木頭或石頭組成，上面放置鵝卵石或小珠子等物件來計算某件事情。計算板的想法來自於你需要時，可以在地面或沙地上劃線或圖形。

The person operating the abacus performs calculations in their head and uses the abacus as a physical aid to keep track of the sums, etc.

This time-line shows the evolution from the earliest counting board to the present day abacus.The evolution of the abacus can be divided into three ages: Ancient Times, Middle Ages, and Modern Times.

算盤演化過程可分為三個時期：

遠古年代，中世紀年代，新世代。

The Salamis Tablet, the Roman Calculi and Hand-abacus are from the period c. 300 B.C to c. 500 A.D.

The oldest surviving counting board is the Salamis tablet (originally thought to be a gaming board), used by the Babylonians circa 300 B.C., discovered in 1846 on the island of Salamis.

最古老的計算板，估計大約在公元三百年前為巴比倫人所使用。於公元1846年在Salamis島上被發現。

Counting Board--Pebbles were used for counting

計算版—以鵝卵石作計數用。

The Apices, the coin-board and the Line-board are from the period c. 5 A.D. to c. 1400 A.D.

The Suan-pan, the Soroban and the Schoty are from the period c. 1200 A.D to the present.

John Napier, (1550-1617), in early 1600s took animal bones and carved the multiples of the Gelosia method of arithmetic on them; by adding on the diagonal, one could "multiply"

Napier’s Bones

納皮爾骨頭

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier\'s_bones

Schickard\'s Calculating clock(1623)--The machine incorporates a set of "Napier\'s bones" (on the cylinders) and a mechanism to add the partial products (with a carry mechanism).

對數表

In 1614, John Napier discovered the logarithm which made it possible to perform multiplications and divisions by addition and subtraction.

1614年，蘇格蘭數學家納皮爾發現了對數，使得數字的乘跟除可以加減替代。

- 1614年，蘇格蘭數學家納皮爾發現了對數，使得數字的乘跟除可以加減替代。
- 1620年，牛津的埃德蒙·甘特（Edmund Gunter）發明了一種使用單個對數刻度的計算工具，當和另外的測量工具配合使用時，可以用來做乘除法。
- 1925年，劍橋的William Oughtred發明了圓式計算尺。

John Napier

William Oughtred

(1575-1660)

Circular Slide Rule圓式計算尺

A slide rule consists of three interlocking calibrated strips. The central strip can be moved lengthways relative to the other two. A sliding cursor with an alignment line can record an intermediate result on any of the scales.

一把計算尺通常由三個互相鎖定的有刻度的長條和一個滑動窗口(稱為游標)組成。在1970年代之前使用廣泛，之後被電子計算器機所取代，成為過時技術。

機械式計算機

電腦紀元

The first computers were people! “Computer” was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs.

“Computer” 原來是一個工作名稱，是指專門負責計算的人。

ENIAC: the "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator"

Completed in 1946, the first vacuum tube-based computer, has 18,000 vacuum tubes and takes up 1,800 square feet of space. Considered to be the first “true computer” 第一台“真正”電腦，內含18,000個真空管，電腦大小有18,000平方英尺。

電腦打孔卡

IBM電腦打孔機，，操作方式與一般打字機一樣。IBM電腦打孔機，，操作方式與一般打字機一樣。

An IBM Key Punch machine which operates like a typewriter except it produces punched cards rather than a printed sheet of paper

The original IBM Personal Computer (PC)

第一代IBM個人電腦

Development of Computers電腦發展簡史

- 1936--Turing Machine (Alan Turing)
- 1943--Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)
- 1946--ENIAC
- 1947--Transistor (Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain) 晶體管
- 1957--Transistorized Experimental Computer (TX-O)
- 1958--Integrated circuit (Jack St. Claire Kilby) 積體電路
- 1971--Intel\'s first microprocessor, the 4004, was developed
- 1971--The first microcomputers (PCs) were developed
- 1974--Apple I
- 1981--IBM PC 個人電腦
- 1988--Laptops 筆記型電腦
- 1994--DNA Computing; Quantum Computing

Moore‘s Law (摩爾定律1965, Gordon Moore)

Number of transistors/square inch on integrated circuits doubles every 18 months.

每平方英吋的晶體管數量每十八個月就會增加一倍。

Development of Computer Languages電腦語言演化簡史

- 1854--British mathematician George Boole devises binary algebra.
- 1936--Turing Machine (Alan Turing)
- 1958--Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)
- 1958--List Processor (LISP)
- 1958--ALGOL
- 1963--Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)
- 1967--Formula Translation (FORTRAN)
- 1971--PASCAL
- 1972--C(ALGOL-60)
- 1979--Ada
- 1983—C++

Developmentof Operating Systems

- 作業系統演化簡史
- 1969--UNIX
- 1978--APPLE
- 1981--MS-DOS
- 1985—Microsoft WINDOWS
- 1991—LINUX (Linus Torvalds)

雲端計算

Next Computing Tool---Worldwide Grid

下一代計算工具---全球網格

Tier-0 – the accelerator centre

- Data acquisition & initial processing
- Long-term data curation
- Distribution of data Tier-1 centres

- Tier-1 – “online” to the data acquisition process high availability
- Major computing centres – high level of service quality
- Managed Mass Storage grid-enabled data service
- Data-heavy analysis
- National, regional support
- Academia Sinica Grid Centre

Canada – Triumf (Vancouver)

France – IN2P3 (Lyon)

Germany – Forschunszentrum Karlsruhe

Italy – CNAF (Bologna)

Netherlands – NIKHEF/SARA (Amsterdam)

Nordic countries – distributed Tier-1

Spain – PIC (Barcelona)

Taiwan – Academia SInica (Taipei)

UK – CLRC (Oxford)

US – FermiLab (Illinois)

– Brookhaven (NY)

LCG Service Hierarchy 服務架構- Tier-2 – ~100 centres in ~40 countries
- Simulation
- End-user analysis – batch and interactive

Global Science needs a Global Grid

全球科學需要一個全球網格

- LCG depends on two major science grid infrastructures –

EGEE and the US Open Science Grid

LCG依賴兩個主要的科學網格基本架構

未來的計算工具?

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