Evolution of Computing Tools 計算工具的演化. Sai-Ping Li 李世炳 Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica March 10, 2012. 在遠古年代，人類因為祭拜而需要計數。. 圓形石林 -- 將巨大石塊豎立按圓形排列的紀念物，周圍環以土堤。建於史前時代，約從西元前 3100 年開始。坐落在英格蘭倫敦西南約 80 英里處 。.
Sai-Ping Li 李世炳
Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica
March 10, 2012
Stonehenge, which lies 13km north of Salisbury, England, is believed to have been an ancient form of calendar designed to capture the light from the summer solstice in a specific fashion.
Pebbles were used by the ancients for a variety of purposes. They are one of the earliest methods of counting using a physical aide.
The abacus is one of the earliest devices to be used in calculation, and still in use, in various forms, around the world today.
算盤 --- 最古老的計算工具之一
The history of the abacus probably traced back to ancient Mesopotamia. The people probably drew lines on the ground and used pebbles to represent numbers and do calculations.
The counting board is a piece of wood, stone or metal with carved grooves or painted lines between which beads, pebbles or metal discs were moved. The abacus is a device, usually of wood (plastic, in recent times), having a frame that holds rods with freely-sliding beads mounted on them.
The person operating the abacus performs calculations in their head and uses the abacus as a physical aid to keep track of the sums, etc.
This time-line shows the evolution from the earliest counting board to the present day abacus.The evolution of the abacus can be divided into three ages: Ancient Times, Middle Ages, and Modern Times.
The Salamis Tablet, the Roman Calculi and Hand-abacus are from the period c. 300 B.C to c. 500 A.D.
The oldest surviving counting board is the Salamis tablet (originally thought to be a gaming board), used by the Babylonians circa 300 B.C., discovered in 1846 on the island of Salamis.
The Apices, the coin-board and the Line-board are from the period c. 5 A.D. to c. 1400 A.D.
The Suan-pan, the Soroban and the Schoty are from the period c. 1200 A.D to the present.
John Napier, (1550-1617), in early 1600s took animal bones and carved the multiples of the Gelosia method of arithmetic on them; by adding on the diagonal, one could "multiply"
Schickard\'s Calculating clock(1623)--The machine incorporates a set of "Napier\'s bones" (on the cylinders) and a mechanism to add the partial products (with a carry mechanism).
In 1614, John Napier discovered the logarithm which made it possible to perform multiplications and divisions by addition and subtraction.
Circular Slide Rule圓式計算尺
A slide rule consists of three interlocking calibrated strips. The central strip can be moved lengthways relative to the other two. A sliding cursor with an alignment line can record an intermediate result on any of the scales.
For example, the division of 22 by 2.75.
例 ：22 ÷ 2.75
An ANALOG computer
One who computes!
The first computers were people! “Computer” was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs.
Completed in 1946, the first vacuum tube-based computer, has 18,000 vacuum tubes and takes up 1,800 square feet of space. Considered to be the first “true computer” 第一台“真正”電腦，內含18,000個真空管，電腦大小有18,000平方英尺。
An IBM Key Punch machine which operates like a typewriter except it produces punched cards rather than a printed sheet of paper
Number of transistors/square inch on integrated circuits doubles every 18 months.
Canada – Triumf (Vancouver)
France – IN2P3 (Lyon)
Germany – Forschunszentrum Karlsruhe
Italy – CNAF (Bologna)
Netherlands – NIKHEF/SARA (Amsterdam)
Nordic countries – distributed Tier-1
Spain – PIC (Barcelona)
Taiwan – Academia SInica (Taipei)
UK – CLRC (Oxford)
US – FermiLab (Illinois)
– Brookhaven (NY)LCG Service Hierarchy 服務架構
EGEE and the US Open Science Grid