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BIF703. Miscellaneous Commands. File related commands. grep - print lines matching a pattern head - output the first part of files tail - output the last part of files sort - sort lines of text files diff - find differences between two files file - determine file type.

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bif703

BIF703

Miscellaneous Commands

file related commands
File related commands
  • grep - print lines matching a pattern
  • head - output the first part of files
  • tail - output the last part of files
  • sort - sort lines of text files
  • diff - find differences between two files
  • file - determine file type
utility commands
Utility commands
  • who –show who is logged in
  • date –print or set the system date and time
  • which –show the full path of (shell) commands
  • finger –user information lookup program
  • mail –send and receive mail
print commands
Print commands
  • lpr – print files
  • lpq – show print queue status
  • lprm – cancel print jobs
slide5
grep
  • grep takes a pattern, read standard input or a list of files, and outputs the lines containing matches for the pattern.

Example:

grep foo *

Print lines in any of the files in the current directory that contain the pattern “foo”.

grep options
grep options

Major options for grep:

-ldisplay name of the file that has matching line

-r search all the files in the current directory and all its subdirectory for the given pattern

-nprefix each output with line number

-w search for matching word

-v output lines that do not contain the given pattern

grep examples
grep examples
  • grep -r foo .

Print all the lines in all the files in the current directory and all its subdirectories that contains the pattern “foo”.

  • grep -lr foo .

Similar as above but only print the names of the files that contains the pattern “foo”

grep examples1
grep examples

Print all the lines in the file “bar” that contains the pattern “foo”

[[email protected] misc]$ grep foo bar

This line contains the word foo and bar.

Do you like to play football or basket ball?

Same as above but prefix each line of output with the line number within the file “bar”

[[email protected] misc]$ grep -n foobar

3:This line contains the word foo and bar.

4:Do you like to play football or basket ball?

grep examples2
grep examples

Print all the lines in the file “bar” that contains the word “foo”

[[email protected] misc]$ grep -w foo bar

This line contains the word foo and bar.

Print all the lines in the file “bar” that does not contain the pattern “foo”

[[email protected] misc]$ grep -v foobar

The name of this file is called bar.

This file has only five line.

This is the end of the file.

head tail
head & tail
  • head bar
    • Display the first 10 line of the file “bar”
  • head -5 bar
    • Display the first 5 lines of the file “bar”
  • tail bar
    • Display the last 10 lines of the file “bar”
  • tail-5bar
    • Display the last 5 lines of the file “bar”
slide11
sort

Sort line of text file

cat numbers

2314 5678

345 2231

101 984

4842 6543

98 11001

[root] sort numbers

101 984

2314 5678

345 2231

4842 6543

98 11001

[root] sort -n numbers

98 11001

101 984

345 2231

2314 5678

4842 6543

String

order

Numeric order

sort examples
sort examples

cat numbers

2314 5678

345 2231

101 984

4842 6543

98 11001

sort numbers

101 984

2314 5678

345 2231

4842 6543

98 11001

sort-k2 numbers

98 11001

345 2231

2314 5678

4842 6543

101 984

Sort by

the 2nd

field

Sort by

the 1st

field

sort examples1
sort examples

cat numbers

2314 5678

345 2231

101 984

4842 6543

98 11001

sort numbers

101 984

2314 5678

345 2231

4842 6543

98 11001

sort-r numbers

98 11001

4842 6543

345 2231

2314 5678

101 984

Sort in

reverse

order

slide14
diff

Display the differences between two files

Syntax:

  • diff [options] file1 file2
  • When using “diff” without any options, it produces a series of lines containing:
    • Add (a)
    • Delete (d), and
    • Change (c) instructions

Each of these lines is followed by the lines from the file that you need to add, delete, or change to make the files the same.

diff examples
diff examples

cat file1

blue

red

white

yellow

orange

cat file2

blue

yellow

black

red

orange

Steps to convert file1 to file2:

$diff file1file2

2,3d1

< red

< white

4a3,4

> black

> red

1. Delete line 2 through 3 from file1

2. Append lines 3 through 4 fromfile2after line 4 infile1

slide16
file

Displays the classification (type) of a file. Considered useful if a file extension is missing, or if user is unsure of file extension.

  • Syntax: file [option] file-list

Examples:

file assign01.html

assign01.html: HTML document text

file a.out

a.out: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), not stripped

file mydoc.doc

mydoc.doc: Microsoft Office Document

file 1

1: empty

slide17
who

Shows which users are logged on to server

Phobos: /home/rchan>$ who

rchan pts/0 Oct 30 02:08 (toronto-hse-ppp3)

sslui pts/1 Oct 30 01:11 (CPE00112f0fe590-)

Phobos: /home/rchan>$ who -H

Name Line Time Hostname

rchan pts/0 Oct 30 02:08 (toronto-hse-ppp3)

sslui pts/1 Oct 30 01:11 (CPE00112f0fe590-)

Phobos: /home/rchan>$ who -qH

Name Hostname

rchan (toronto-hse-ppp3)

sslui (CPE00112f0fe590-)

Total users: 2

who options
who options

Major options for grep:

-Hdisplays column headings

-T includes message reception status: + message reception on - message reception off

-i includes column indicating number of minutes of user inactivity.

who examples
who examples

Show who is logged on

Column headings

who -H

Name Line Time Hostname

root pts/0 Mar 02 09:11 (142.204.20.17)

msaul pts/1 Mar 02 09:21 (CPE0040f4df2fef-)

who -i

root pts/0 Mar 02 09:11 0:03 42368 (142.204.20.17)

msaul pts/1 Mar 02 09:21 . 37790

who -T

root - pts/0 Mar 02 09:11

msaul + pts/1 Mar 02 09:21

Less than 1 minute inactivity

Allows message reception

slide20
date

Displays the system time and date

[[email protected] week8]$ date

Sun Oct 30 01:48:10 EST 2005

[[email protected] week8]$ date +"%D"

10/30/05

[[email protected] week8]$ date +"%T"

01:54:05

[[email protected] week8]$ date +"%D %T"

10/30/05 01:54:13

  • Refer to the man page for more formatting codes
which
which

Shows the full path of (shell) commands

[[email protected] week8]$ which mkdir

/bin/mkdir

[[email protected] week8]$ which type

/usr/bin/which: no type in (/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/home/ray/bin)

finger
finger

User information lookup program

Phobos: /home/rchan>$ finger rchan

Login name: rchan In real life: Raymond Chan

Directory: /home/rchan Shell: /usr/bin/ksh

On since Oct 30 02:08:55 on pts/0

from toronto-hse-ppp3

(messages off)

No Plan.

slide23
mail
  • Send and receive mail
  • To read your mail on phobos, type the “mail” command by itself:

Phobos: /home/rchan>$ mail

Mail [5.2 UCB] [AIX 4.1] Type ? for help.

"/var/spool/mail/rchan": 1 message 1 new

>N 1 rchan Wed Oct 26 00:24 10/340 "Mail testing"

sending mail
Sending mail

To send a file called “letter” through email on phobos to the user “rchan”:

Phobos: /home/rchan>$ mail -s “subject” rchan < letter

lpr lpq lprm
lpr, lpq, lprm
  • lpr – submit file for printing

lpr [ -P printer-name ] [ -# copies ] file-name

[ -P printer-name] : send files to the named printer

[ -# copies ] :sets the number of copies to print

between 1 and 100

file-name : name of file to be printed

printer queue status
printer queue status
  • lpq - show printer queue status

lpq [ -P printer-name] [ -a ] [ -l]

[ -P printer-name] : show status on the named printer

[ -a ] : reports jobs on all printers

[ -l ] : display more verbose (long) format

cancel print jobs
Cancel Print Jobs
  • lprm – cancel print jobs

lprm [ - ] [ -P printer-name] [ job ID(s)]

[ - ] : all print jobs

[ -P printer-name] : print jobs on the named printer

[ job ID(s) ]: jobs to be cancel

additional resources
Additional Resources
  • Here are some Related-Links for Interest Only:
    • Linux manual pages (online):
      • http://man.he.net/