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Administration and Interpretation of the Career Profile Inventory. Envisia Learning 3435 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite 203  Santa Monica, CA 90405 (310) 452-5130  (310) 450-0548 Fax http://www.envisialearning.com. Envisia Learning.

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Administration and Interpretation of the Career Profile Inventory

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Administration and interpretation of the career profile inventory l.jpg

Administration and Interpretation of the Career Profile Inventory

Envisia Learning

3435 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite 203  Santa Monica, CA 90405

(310) 452-5130  (310) 450-0548 Fax

http://www.envisialearning.com


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Envisia Learning

Envisia Learning is a provider and developer of innovative, high-quality people and process solutions for consultants and business professionals working with individuals, teams and organizations.

We provide a variety of customized and off the shelf products in the areas of 360-degree feedback, personality, career & stress assessment, survey solutions and on-line performance management systems, all customized and branded for the client and all of which are well-researched and validated to meet your needs.


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BALANCING INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS


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ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER MANAGEMENT ISSUES

  • Pre-employment personnel selection systems to optimize employee satisfaction and productivity

  • Identification of “high potentials” and a talent management pipeline at all job levels

  • A talent management system emphasizing employee development

  • Proper alignment of employee’s skills, abilities, interests, and experiences with current and future job openings

  • Retention of talent and reduction of voluntary turnover


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Retention Costs

  • The 2000 Retention Practices Survey (SHRM) reported an average 17% annual voluntary quit rate across 473 organizations (highest was 44.9% in hospitality and lowest was 14.9% in manufacturing)

  • Cost of recruiting and training new leaders (supervisors and managers) is approximately 90-150% of the employee’s salary

  • US Department of Labor estimates that it costs an organization approximately one-third of a new hire’s annual salary to replace a non-exempt employee


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Retention Factors

  • A recent McKinsey study of 13,000 executives at more than 120 companies and case studies of 27 leading companies, revealed compelling evidence that better talent management leads to increased performance

  • On average, companies that did a better job of attracting, developing, and retaining highly talented managers earned 22 percentage points higher return to shareholders

    Michels, E., Habdfield-Jones, H & Axlerod, B. (2001). The War for Talent. Harvard Business Press.


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Retention Factors

  • Gallup's Employee Engagement Index reveals that, on average, about 70 percent of U.S. workers are not engaged in or are actively disengaged from their work.

  • A recent Towers Perrin multi-company survey revealed that only half (50 percent) of employees polled said their company inspires them to do their best work, suggesting companies are performing below their potential because they are not engaging employees


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OPD Employee Engagement Study

  • Results of two company wide employee engagement surveys were analyzed for all corporate staff for a large food service corporation for 2002 and 2004

  • Employees rated their own involvement with their organization and job using a benchmarked 12-item Employee Engagement Index (alpha .91)

  • Employees were asked additional questions about retention (intention to leave in 12 months), job satisfaction and perceptions of job stress

    Nowack, K. (2005). Employee Engagement Matters: Relationship between Employee Engagement, Retention, Job Satisfaction and Stress


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OPD Employee Engagement Study (N=163) Significant Differences (all p’s < .01)


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BUILDING A RETENTION CULTURE

  • Hold managers accountable for talent management including tying retention and developmental coaching to performance reviews

  • Train leaders on retention and development strategies so they can build a retention culture in their own units

  • Implement strategic talent development programs including coaching, 360 degree feedback and assessment centers to identify high potential leadership talent

  • Institute formalized mentoring and career assessment and development programs


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OLD PARADIGMS

Job Security

Longitudinal Career Paths

Job/Person Fit

Organizational Loyalty

Career Success

Academic Degree

Position/Title

Full-Time Employment

Retirement

Single Jobs/Careers

Change in jobs based on fear

Promotion highly tenure based

NEW PARADIGMS

Employability Security

Alternate Career Paths

Person/Organization Fit

Job/Task Loyalty

Work/Family Balance

Continuous Relearning

Competencies/Development

Contract Employment

Career Sabbaticals

Multiple Jobs/Careers

Change in jobs based on growth

Promotion highly performance based

WORKFORCE 2010THE CHANGING CAREER PARADIGMS


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2005 Retention Driver Survey

1Survey of over 7,600 employees in diverse industries by Career Systems International


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Contributions from

Inducements from

the Individual

the

Organization

Effort

Pay

Ability

Job security

Loyalty

Benefits

Skills

Career opportunities

Time

Status

Competencies

Promotion opportunities

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

The overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.


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USES OF THE CAREER PROFILE INVENTORY

  • Career Counseling

  • Executive/Management Coaching

  • Supervisory Training

  • Management Development

  • Career Resource Centers

  • Assessment Centers

  • Outplacement


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYONLINE ADMINISTRATION


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SUMMARY OF SCALESCAREER PROFILE INVENTORY

  • CAREER STAGE

  • CAREER PATH PREFERENCE

  • POLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATION


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STEP 1

INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT

STEP 2

INTERPERSONAL ASSESSMENT

STEP 3

ORGANIZATIONAL ASSESSMENT

STEP 4

ACTION PLANNING

Who am I? (Career Stage, Path Preference, Political Style)

How do other see me?(Self-insight, image, political style, personality)

What are my options within the organization? (Knowledge of the organization, future trends, options, opportunities)

How do I achieve my goals?(Motivation, confidence, goal setting, action planning)

CAREER MANAGEMENT PROCESS


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Minimize

Develop

High

SKILLS

Avoid

Explore

Low

Low

High

INTERESTS

COMBINATIONS OF CAREER INTERESTS AND SKILLS


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPILOT RESEARCH STUDY

  • Initial pilot study established on 161 employed adults in 1990; Second item/scale analysis in 2002 (N=133)

  • Composed of 30% male and 70% female; 71.5% Caucasian, 11.5% Hispanic, 5.5% African American, 5.5% Asian, and 6% Other

  • Average age was 35.6 (S.D. =7.23)

  • Sample was highly educated (50% possessed a Bachelor’s degree, 19.3% a Masters, and 6% a Doctorate)

  • The employees came from over 14 diverse industries in both the public and private sectors


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPILOT RESEARCH STUDY NORMS (N=133)

ALPHACURRENTFUTURE

Career StageMean SDMean SD

Entry.715.862.25.632.2

Development.647.041.77.491.7

Balance.685.281.96.962.0

Exploration.805.472.74.592.3

Career Path Preference

Managerial.609.292.7 9.682.9

Specialist.648.612.5 9.302.7

Generalist.679.622.711.302.7

Entrepreneurial.588.592.4 9.862.7

Political Style

Promoter.7117.034.113.894.1

Strategist.6317.672.917.223.9

Team Player.7315.893.818.913.5

Independent.6313.473.415.433.9


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYSCALE CORRELATIONS

CAREER STAGE CORRELATIONS (*p < .01)

1 2 3 4

1. Entry__.18-.11 .09

2. Development__ .02-.23*

3. Balance__ .02

4. Exploration __


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYSCALE CORRELATIONS

CAREER PATH CORRELATIONS (*p < .01)

1 2 3 4

1. Managerial__ .48*-.09 .06

2. Generalist__ .08 .19*

3. Specialist __ .49*

4. Entrepreneurial __


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYSCALE CORRELATIONS

POLITICAL STYLE CORRELATIONS (* p < .01)

1 2 3 4

1. Independent __ .40* .02 -.18*

2. Team Player __ .32* -.22*

3. Strategist __ -.23*

4. Promoter __


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYSCALE CORRELATIONS

Correlations Between Preferred Political Style and Preferred Career Path Preferences (*p < .01)

Preferred Political Style Orientation

Preferred Path Promoter Strategist Team Independent

PlayerPlayer

Managerial .31* .34* .02 -.01

Generalist .26* .35* .26* .16

Specialist .08 .13 .21* .42*

Entrepreneurial .15 .21* .19* .30*


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER STAGE SCALE

  • ENTRY

  • DEVELOPMENT

  • BALANCED

  • EXPLORATION


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYSTAGES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Stage 5: Late Career (ages 55–retirement):Remain productive in work, maintain self-esteem, prepare for retirement.

Stage 4: Midcareer (ages 40–55):Reappraise early career and early adulthood goals, reaffirm or modify goals, make choices appropriate to middle adult years, remain productive.

Stage 3: Early Career (ages 25–40):Learn job, learn organizational rules and norms, fit into chosen occupation and organization, increase competence, pursue goals.

Stage 2: Organizational Entry (ages 18–25):Obtain job offer(s) from desired organization(s), select appropriate job based on complete and accurate information.

Stage 1: Preparation for Work (ages 0–25):Develop occupational self-image, assess alternative occupations, develop initial occupational choice, pursue necessary education.


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER STAGE: ENTRY

  • This stage is characterized as the beginning of one's career (or new career), initial placement, the early process of "learning the ropes," figuring out what is expected from others in the organization and developing basic knowledge, skills and abilities.

  • It The major developmental theme associated with the entry career stage might be conceptualized as “self-validation” of an individual’s skills, abilities, and potential.


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER STAGE: DEVELOPMENT

  • This stage is characterized by being accepted into the organization, being promoted and receiving increasingly more challenging assignments and responsibilities.

  • The major developmental theme associated with the development career stage might be conceptualized as “self-improvement” of an individual’s skills, abilities, and potential.


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER STAGE: BALANCED

  • This stage is characterized by self-satisfaction with previous organizational efforts and accomplishments, a re-assessment of career/life goals and developing a greater balance between work, family, children, recreation, leisure

  • The major developmental theme associated with the balance career stage might be conceptualized as “self-fulfillment” with an individual’s work/family activities, experiences and accomplishments.


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER STAGE: EXPLORATION

  • This stage is characterized by feelings of lack of mobility, options, choices or “fit” regarding one’s position, or career advancement (upward, laterally, or downward).

  • The major developmental theme associated with the exploration career stage might be conceptualized as active “self-exploration” and redefining of career options and opportunities where an individual can be successfully challenged, stimulated and continue to develop personally and professionally.


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BEHAVIORS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE EXPLORATION/TRAPPED CAREER STAGE

  • DISENGAGEMENT: Depressed aspirations, low organizational commitment, non-responsibility

  • CONSERVATIVE RESISTANCE: Chronic negativity/criticism, lack of initiative, low risk taking, territoriality


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYTHE PLATEAUING TRAP

  • Career Plateau

    • Situation in which for either organizational or personal reasons the probability of moving up the career ladder is low.

  • Types of Plateaus

    • Structural plateau: end of advancement

    • Content plateau: lack of challenge

    • Life plateau: crisis of personal identity


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CAREER STAGE THEORYSELECTED REFERENCES

  • Berlew, D. & Hall, D. (1966). The socialization of managers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2, 207-223

  • Dalton, G. & Thompson, P. (1977). The four stages of professional careers. Organizational Dynamics, 19-42

  • Erickson, E. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues, New York: International Universities.

  • Hall, D. (1975). Pressures from work, self, and home in the life stages of married women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 6, 121-132.

  • Hall, D. (1976). Careers in organizations. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Publishing.

  • Levinson, D. et al. (1974). The psychological development of men in early adulthood and the mid-life transition. In D.F. Hicks, A. Thomas, & M. Roff (eds.), Life history research in psychopathology. Vol. 3, Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

  • Schein, E. (1971). The individual, the organization, and the career: A conceptual scheme. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7, 401-426.

  • Super, D. & Bohn, M. (1970). Occupational psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

  • Super, D. et al. (1957). Vocational development: A framework for research. New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 40-41.


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER PATH PREFERENCES RESULTS


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYCAREER PATH PREFERENCES

  • MANAGERIAL

  • GENERALIST

  • SPECIALIST

  • ENTREPRENEURIAL


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYMANAGERIAL CAREER PATH

  • Traditional vertical movement with increasing levels of authority & responsibility in a managerial path

  • Decreasing opportunities for upward mobility in most upward mobility & career movement organizations

  • Organizational reward systems support upward mobility & career movement


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TYPICAL MOTIVES

Power

Influence

Control

Managerial Competence

Leadership

Achievement

TYPICAL REWARDS

Promotion

Increased Authority

Increased Span of Promotion Control

Executive Perks (e.g., stock options)

Titles

MANAGERIAL CAREER PATHTYPICAL MOTIVES & REWARDS


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How Do You Develop Leaders?

  • Job change/rotation

  • Special projects and assignments

  • Exposure and involvement in key business challenges

  • Task forces, committees, change initiatives

Experience

  • Job Performance feedback

  • Executive coaching

  • 360-degree feedback process

  • Developmental assessment workshops

Ascending Value

Feedback &

Coaching

  • Critical skill building training programs

  • Transition training programs

  • Key external training programs

  • Self-directed learning initiatives

Formal

Learning


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DEVELOPING LEADERS WITH A MANAGERIAL CAREER PATH PREFERENCE

  • Cross-Functional Versatility

    -Exposure to all functions

    -Understanding of the organization

  • Job/Developmental Challenges

    -Structured experiences to facilitate development

    -Strategic Assignments/Responsibilities

  • Core Competencies

    -Training on specific competencies/skills

    -Transition training

  • Derailment Factors

    -Multi-rater feedback to identify strengths/development

    -Coaching


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ENHANCING JOB/DEVELOPMENTAL CHALLENGES

  • Carry an assignment from beginning to end

  • Become involved in a merger, acquisition, strategic alliance, or partnership opportunity

  • Implement an organization wide change initiative

  • Negotiate agreements with external organizations

  • Operate in a high pressure or high-visibility situation

  • Head a visible committee or organization wide task force


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYGENERALIST CAREER PATH

  • Spiral career movements based on related experiences, knowledge & skills

  • Career movements result in a generalist background and experience

  • Consistent with a project and program management organizational career path


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TYPICAL MOTIVES

Professional Growth

Personal Development

Continuous Learning

Innovation

Developing Others

TYPICAL REWARDS

Cross-Training

Job Rotation

Project Management

Education Reimbursement

Mentoring Assignments

GENERALIST CAREER PATHTYPICAL REWARDS & MOTIVES


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYSPECIALIST PATH

  • Typically remain in one occupational field for most of one’s career

  • Remain either economically anchored to one occupational area or utilize specialized education, knowledge & credentials

  • Some “Dual-Career” paths allow for independent contributor role


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TYPICAL MOTIVES

Technical Competence

Expertise

Independence

Affiliation

Security

Service to Others

TYPICAL REWARDS

Recognition

Job Security

Benefits

Continuing Education

Involvement in Professional Associations

SPECIALIST CAREER PATHTYPICAL MOTIVES & REWARDS


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYENTREPRENEURIAL CAREER PATH

  • Frequent occupational/career /job changes often unrelated to previous experiences

  • Traditionally viewed as “unstable” or “unreliable”

  • Fastest growing path among women and minority groups


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TYPICAL MOTIVES

Entrepreneurship

Autonomy

Variety

Risk/Challenge

Achievement

Creativity

Flexibility

TYPICAL REWARDS

Flexible Schedules

Job Sharing

Bonuses

Independent Contracts

Consulting Assignments

ENTREPRENEURIAL CAREER PATHTYPICAL MOTIVES & REWARDS


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CAREER PATH PREFERENCEDISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • What individual motives & rewards are most relevant for each path?

  • What opportunities exist within your organization for each career path?

  • What differences, if any, exist between your “Current” and “Prefer” scores on this scale?


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CAREER PATH PREFERENCECOMMON BLENDS

  • Entrepreneurial + Specialist = External Consultant

  • Generalist + Specialist = Internal Consultant

  • Entrepreneurial + Manager = Entrepreneurial Leader

  • Generalist + Manager = Program Manager


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CAREER PATH THEORYSELECTED REFERENCES

  • Schein, E. (1978). Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational Needs. Menlo Park, Ca: Addison-Wesley.

  • Dalton, G., Thompson, P., & Price, R. (1977). Career stages: A model of professional careers in organizations. Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 19-42.

  • Dalton, G. & Thompson, P. (1986). Novations: Strategies for Career Management. Glenview, Ill: Foresman & Co.

  • McClelland, D. (1976). Power is the greater motivator. Harvard Business Review, 54, 100-110.

  • Driver, M. (1982). Career concepts: A new approach to career research. In R. Katz (ed.), Career Issues in Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Von Glinow, M., Driver, M., Brousseau, K., & Prince, J. (1983). The design of a career oriented human resource system. Academy of Management Journal, 8, 23-32.

  • Derr, C.B. (1986). Managing the new careerist. San Franciso, Jossey-Bass.


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPOLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATION SCALE

  • PROMOTER

  • STRATEGIST

  • TEAM PLAYER

  • INDEPENDENT PLAYER


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPOLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATION

Impression Conflict

Management Management

Political Style Orientation


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPOLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATION

Impression Management--Extent to which an individual sells, markets & promotes one’s self and/or his/her team

Conflict Management--Extent to which an individual fights for his/her way and/or his/her team


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INDEPENDENT

TEAM PLAYER

PROMOTER

STRATEGIST

CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPOLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATIONIMPRESSION MANAGEMENT

Promotes Self to a Low Extent

Promotes Self to a High Extent

Promotes Others to a Low Extent

Promotes Others to a High Extent


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INDEPENDENT

TEAM PLAYER

PROMOTER

STRATEGIST

CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPOLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATIONCONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Fights for Self Interests to a Low Extent

Fights for Self Interests to a High Extent

Fights for Others Interests to a Low Extent

Fights for Others Interests to a High Extent


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CAREER PROFILE INVENTORYPOLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATION

  • PROMOTER: High Self Impression Management/Competitive Conflict Style

  • STRATEGIST: High Self & High Team Impression Management/Collaborative Conflict Style

  • TEAM PLAYER: High Team Impression Management/Compromising Conflict Style

  • INDEPENDENT PLAYER: Low Self & Low Team Impression Management/Avoiding Conflict Style


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POLITICAL STYLE ORIENTATIONDISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • How would you describe the “political culture” of your organization?

  • How are the four political styles rewarded?

  • How are the four political styles viewed by each other?

  • What differences, if any, exist between your “Current” and “Ideal” scores on this scale? What does this say about your political style orientation?


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POLITICAL STYLE THEORYSELECTED REFERENCES

  • K. Thomas (1976). Conflict and conflict management. In M. D. Donnette (ed.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally, pp. 889-935.

  • K. Thomas. (1977). Toward multidimensional values in teaching: Examples of conflict behaviors. Academy of Management Journal, 2, 480-489.

  • Kilman, T. & Thomas, K. (1978). Four perspectives of conflict management: An attributional framework for organization description and normative theory. Academy of Management Journal, 4, 59-68.

  • Leary, M. & Kowalski, R. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 34-47.


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