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SPAN Taxonomy (Temporal Items)
SNAP Taxonomy (Spatial Items)
Represented in KRR
An Intentional Act is a Psychological Act
that depends on an agent to instantiate it.
It stands in a relation of dependence to
other items such as neuro-biological
The purpose of higher level fusion is to develop probable explanations of a situation based on prior knowledge and incoming transient information to produce a coherent composite picture of the current situation along with a prediction of consequences.
A dynamic situational picture is the result of reasoning about objects, attributes, aggregates, relationships and their behavior over time within a specific context.
The process of building the dynamic situational picture requires formally structured and computationally tractable domain representation.
Physical objects –
Physical objects (PO-PO)
Combinations of ES (CES) –
Combinations of ES
PO- Aggregates of PO
Frank White (Workshop II on Ontologies and Higher-lvl Fusion – Beaver Hollow
Situation Awareness (SAW) Ontology Model for Battlefield Relations
(C. J. Matheus, M. M. Kokar, and K. Baclawski. (2003)
Relationships between time points
Before, At the same time, Start, Finish, Soon, Very soon, Resulting in, Initiating
Relationships between time intervals
Disjoint, Joint, Overlap, Inside, Equal
A part of
“Close to a hospital”
“Cluster A is larger than before”
“Along the wind direction”
“Distance between Clusters A and B is smaller than before”
“Casualty cluster A overlaps with building cluster C”
(Objects + Processes)
Bisantz, A., Rogova, G., Little, E. (2004) “On the Integration of Cognitive Work Analysis within a
Multisource Information Fusion Development Methodology,” Proceedings of the Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, New Orleans