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ERLC Webinar Series Fall 2009. A Repair Kit for Grading - 15 Fixes for Broken Grades Webinar Session 6 With Ken O’Connor. WELCOME. Thank you for participating in the Webinar “15 Fixes for Broken Grades” Presented by Ken O’Connor. Session #6 Fixes 14 & 15 Summary & Reflection.

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ERLC Webinar Series Fall 2009

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

ERLC Webinar SeriesFall 2009

A Repair Kit for Grading -

15 Fixes for Broken Grades

Webinar Session 6

With Ken O’Connor


Welcome

WELCOME

Thank you for participating

in the Webinar

“15 Fixes for Broken Grades”

Presented by

Ken O’Connor


A repair kit for grading 15 fixes for broken grades

Session #6

Fixes 14 & 15

Summary & Reflection

A Repair Kit For Grading:15 Fixes for Broken Grades


Presented by ken o connor

Presented by Ken O’Connor

Assess for Success Consulting

[email protected]

www.oconnorgrading.com


Erlc webinar series fall 2009

HANGOVERS

Fixes 11 & 12

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2-4


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The essential question how confident are you that the grades students get in your school are

The Essential Question:How confident are you that the grades students get in your school are:

  • consistent

  • accurate

  • meaningful, and

  • supportive of learning?

    If grades do not meet these four conditions of quality they are “broken” i.e. ineffective.

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Grading issues

Grading Issues

  • Achievement (only)

  • Evidence (quality)

  • Calculation

  • Learning (support)

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Grades are broken when they

Grades are broken when they …

  • include ingredients that distort achievement

  • arise from low quality or poorly organized evidence

  • are derived from inappropriate number crunching, and when they

  • do not support the learning process

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For each fix

For each fix…

  • What do you think – PMI

  • Where are you/school/district now?

  • Where do you want to go – you/school/district?

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Fixes to support the learning process

Fixes to support the learning process

13. Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence.

14. Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances emphasize more recent achievement.

15. Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students - they can - and should - play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement.

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #14

Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances emphasize more recent achievement.

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33

31

6-14

O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning, Corwin, 2002, 33


Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Who do you want to pack your parachute?

A - Student 1; B - Student 2; C - Student 3

Remember the parachutes were packed after the course was over.

Discuss with others or make your own choice. You have 30

seconds to indicate your choice.

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #14

The key question is, “What information provides the most accurate depiction of students’ learning at this time?” In nearly all cases, the answer is

“the most current information.”

If students demonstrate that past assessment information no longer accurately reflects their learning, that information must be dropped and replaced by the new information. Continuing to rely on past assessment data miscommunicates

students’ learning.

Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning:

The 1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 21

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #14

“We know that students will rarely perform at high levels on challenging learning tasks at their first attempt. Deep understanding or high levels of proficiency are achieved only

as a result of trial, practice, adjustments

based on feedback and more practice.”

McTighe, J., “What Happens Between Assessments”,

Educational Leadership, Dec. ‘96 - Jan. ‘97, 11

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #14

“ . . . final grades should (almost) never be determined by simply averaging the

grades from several grading periods

(e.g., adding the grades from terms one

through three and dividing by three).”

(exception - discrete standards/content)

O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to

Standards, Second Edition, Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA,

2002, 135

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

109

Fix #14

O’Connor, K.

A Repair Kit for

Grading,

ETS Portland,

2007, 109

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #14

“Educators generally recognize learning as a progressive and

incremental process. Most also agree that students should have

multiple opportunities to demonstrate their learning. But is it

fair to consider all these learning trials in determining students’

grades?If at any time in the instructional process

students demonstrate that they have learned the

concepts well and mastered the intended learning goals,

doesn’t that make all previous information on the their

learning of those concepts inaccurate and invalid? Why

then should such information be “averaged in” when

determining students’ grades?”

Guskey, T.R., “Computerized Gradebooks and the Myth of Objectivity,”

Kappan, 83 (10), June 2002, 777-778

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Fix #14

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Conditions for ‘Second Chance” Assessment

Always - evidence of ‘correctives’

Optional - opportunity cost

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For fix 14

For Fix #14

What do you think?

+ Green Checkmark 

- Red X 

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For fix 141

For Fix #14

Where are you/school/district now?

Implementation

A complete

B almost complete

C partial

D limited

E none

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For fix 142

For Fix #14

Where do you want to go - you/school/district now?

Implementation

A complete

B almost complete

C partial

D limited

E none

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #15

Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students; they can - and should - play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement.

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Fix #15 Motivating Students Towards Excellence

Rick Stiggins believes student-involved

assessment is the route to follow. It includes:-

* student involvement in the construction of

assessments and in the development of criteria

for success;

* students keeping records of their own

achievement and growth through such strategies

as portfolios; and

* students communicating their achievement

through such vehicles as student-involved

parent conferences

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Stiggins and Chappuis describe strategies that teachers can use to involve students, including the following:

Engage students in reviewing weak and strong samples in order to determine the attributes of a good performance or product . . .

Students practice using criteria to evaluate anonymous strong and weak work.

Students work in pairs to revise an anonymous weak sample they have just evaluated.

Stiggins, R., and J. Chappuis, “Using student-involved classroom assessment to close achievement gaps,” Theory into Practice,44(1), 2005, 15

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The best resource for student involvement ideas is

Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning

Written by Jan Chappuis

Published by ETS, Portland earlier this year.

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For fix 15

For Fix #15

What do you think?

+ Green Checkmark

- Red X 

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For fix 151

For Fix #15

Where are you/school/district now?

Implementation

A complete

B almost complete

C partial

D limited

E none

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For fix 152

For Fix #15

Where do you want to go - you/school/district now?

Implementation

A complete

B almost complete

C partial

D limited

E none

6-29c


Group sharing

Group Sharing

  • Please share what you think is your best or most unique way of involving students with the whole group by giving a video report, an oral report or typing in the chat box.

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SUMMARY

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For grades that are:

Consistent Fix 8

Accurate Fixes 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 14

Meaningful Fix 7

Supportive of learning Fixes 13 14 15

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  • Givens- quality assessment (10)

  • - standards base (7)

  • - performance standards (8, 9)

  • Musts- achievement separated from behaviors (1, 2, 3

  • 4, 5, 6)

  • - summative only (13)

  • - more recent emphasized (14)

  • - number crunching (11, 12)

  • - student involvement (15)

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254

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Grading “Top Ten + 1” Reference List

(in alphabetical order)

Brookhart, S. Grading, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2004

Canady, R. and P. R. Hotchkiss, “It’s a Good Score: Just a Bad

Grade,” Kappan, September 1989, 68-71

Cooper, D. Talk About Assessment, Thomson Nelson, 2007

Guskey, T. R. and J. Bailey, Developing Grading and Reporting

Systems for Student Learning, Corwin, 2001

Kagan, S., “Group Grades Miss the Mark,” Educational

Leadership, May 1995, 68-71

Kohn, A., “Grading: The Issue is not How but Why,”

Educational Leadership, October 1994, 38-41

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Erlc webinar series fall 2009

Grading “Top Ten + 1” Reference List (cont.)

Marzano, R.J., Classroom Assessment and Grading That Works,

ASCD, 2006

O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades, ETS, Portland, 2007

Stiggins, R. et al, Classroom Assessment for Student Learning,,

ETS, Portland, 2004

Wiggins, G., “Honesty and Fairness: Toward Better

Grading and Reporting” in Guskey, T. R. (Editor),

Communicating Student Learning: The ASCD Yearbook, 1996,

Alexandria, VA, 1996, 141-177

Wormeli, R. Fair Isn’t Equal, Stenhouse/NMSA, 2006

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“. . . the primary purpose of classroom assessment is

to inform teaching and improve learning,

not to sort and select students or to justify a grade.”

McTighe, Jay and Ferrara, Steven, “Performance-Based Assessment in the Classroom”, Pennsylvania ASCD

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Grades

should come from

body +performance + fixes

ofstandards

evidence

i.e.,professional judgment

NOT

just number crunching

a

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To evaluate or judge is to reach

“a sensible conclusion that is

consistent with both evidence

and common sense”

Robert Linn, CRESST

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What is Insanity?

Doing the same thing over and

over and expecting things to

improve.

Attributed to Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

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REFLECTION

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27

27

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O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning, Corwin, 2002, 27


Erlc webinar series fall 2009

What grade SHOULD this student receive?

What grade do you think that he actually received?

Please be ready to respond in one minute as follows -

A 90-100%

B 80-89%

C 70-79%

D 60-69%

E Insufficient Evidence

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Group sharing1

Group Sharing

  • Please share one aspect of your reflection on either of these tools with the whole group by giving a video report, an oral report or typing in the chat box.

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Thank you

Thank You!

Ken O’Connor

Val, Jann & Siobahn(webinar support team)


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