Understanding the Criminal Justice System

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Understanding the Criminal Justice System

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1. Understanding the Criminal Justice System CJUS 101 The Rediscovery of Justice in America

2. Rediscovery Criminal justice refers to: a. The structure, functions, and decision processes of agencies that deal with the management and control of crime and criminal offenders.” (1) Structure - organizational hierarchy and staffing - rank and file of employees - ‘pyramid style’

3. Rediscovery (2) Functions - day to day operations - patrol / custody / investigation / etc. (3) Decision processes - assignment of personnel - allocation of funds - funding programs - what to charge - crimes to attack

4. Rediscovery b. Comprised of 3 primary components (1) Police - most visible - first-line aspect of the system (2) Courts - judiciary functions - prosecution / defense / trial process (3) Corrections

5. Rediscovery - custody / security - those convicted / awaiting trial c. Found at all levels of government (1) Federal - variety of police organizations - trial / appellate courts - US Attorney General’s Office - correctional institutions - probation / parole

6. Rediscovery (2) State - state police agencies - state appellate courts - state attorney general - prisons / half-way houses - community corrections (3) Local - city / county law enforcement - city / county courts - city / county jails

7. Rediscovery Levels of criminal justice a. Police (1) Federal - FBI / ATF / Secret Service / DEA / CIA / US Marshal / Capitol Police - US Postal Service / BIA / US Wildlife / US Fisheries / INS / Border Patrol - Park Service / US Customs / IRS / MP / EPA / FAA / FDA / etc.

8. Rediscovery (2) State - patrol / wildlife / liquor control / park ranger / gambling / drug enforcement - DNR / CPS / L&I / AG’s Office / tort claims / support enforcement / etc. (3) Local - county sheriff / city police / park police / transit police / airport police - animal enforcement / code violation officer / housing police / etc.

9. Rediscovery b. Courts (1) Federal - administrative courts / magistrate’s court / district court / court of appeals - US Supreme Court (2) State - superior court / court of appeals / state supreme court

10. Rediscovery (3) Local - municipal court - district court c. Corrections (1) Federal - maximum to minimum prisons - probation / parole (2) State

11. Rediscovery - maximum to minimum prisons - probation / parole (a) Walla Walla / Monroe / Shelton / Clallam Bay / Airway Heights / Stafford Creek / Coyote Ridge / Purdy (women’s prison) (3) Local - county / city jail - probation

12. Rediscovery Criminal justice in America - history and development a. 1700’s to mid-1800’s - small town America - little crime / local police b. Rural America - still on farms - small communities - people more involved

13. Rediscovery c. Late 1800’s - moving to cities - crime increasing - criminal gangs / foreign gangs (1) Corruption - police / courts / corrections (2) 1896 - Jim Crow Laws - legitimized racism

14. Rediscovery d. Early 1900’s - growing public concern (1) Wickersham Commission (federal) - interstate transportation - crime / corruption - state / local governments (a) Concern faded - interests diverted - WW I

15. Rediscovery e. Cause / effect factors (1) 1920’s - prohibition - prosperity - ignored corruption (2) 1930’s - Great Depression - public enemies - (1939) start questioning again

16. Rediscovery (3) 1940’s (war years) - WW II: concern diverted - war ends: demand accountability - racism - drugs (4) 1950’s (fabulous fifties) - organized crime - Korean conflict - communism

17. Rediscovery - street crime - juvenile delinquency / rock n’ roll (a) Middle / upper-class - not effected - technology - no war / riots / protests - ignored civil problems (b) “Leave It to Beaver” - “Father Knows Best”

18. Rediscovery (c) Expected children to conform - did as told - punished (5) 1960’s (Violent Sixties) - enforced conformity - Bill of Rights - Johnson vs. Goldwater (a) Racism continues - Viet Nam

19. Rediscovery - Democratic Nat’l Convention - ghetto riots - demonstrations - drugs - counterculture - freedom riders (b) Crime - murder: 76% / assaults: 117% - robbery: 121% / rape: 224% - theft: 245% / burglary: 144%

20. Rediscovery (c) Assassinations - 1963: John F. Kennedy - 1964: Malcom X - 1967: George Rockwell - 1968: Robert Kennedy - 1968: Martin Luther King (6) 1970’s - crime rate - “War on Heroin” - Viet Nam

21. Rediscovery - Watergate (7) 1980s - crime - drugs - gangs (a) Ronald Reagan (conservative) - corruption (Meese / Donovan) - militarism - assassination attempt

22. Rediscovery (b) US Supreme Court (8) 1990’s - George Bush (conservative) - drug war / Persian Gulf War - US Supreme Court (a) Bill Clinton (liberal) - social reforms - law enforcement - Monica Lewinsky

23. Rediscovery (9) 2000’s - George W. Bush - 220 billion surplus = 175 billion deficit - 9/11 - Afghanistan / Iraq war - corporate tax incentives - Patriot Act - Homeland Security (10) - Barack H. Obama - $1.7 trillion deficit

24. - Iraq War - Afghanistan War - unemployment - economy - politics - Supreme Court - environment 4. Presidential strategies on crime / drugs - primary concern prior to 9/11

25. Rediscovery - crime and disorder a. Lyndon B. Johnson (1965) - Senator Barry Goldwater - law and order campaign (1) Johnson’s Great Society - work or welfare - no crime / drugs (2) Adopted law and order agenda

26. Rediscovery - more police - Thurgood Marshal (3) Established new programs - LEAA / LEEP - Omnibus Crime Control Act - Safe Streets Act (a) Programs failed - crime increases - drug use increases

27. Rediscovery b. Richard M. Nixon (1969) - “war on heroin” - reason for crime (1) Money to law enforcement - DEA (1973) - federal support (2) Watergate - resigned - Gerald Ford appointed

28. Rediscovery - presidential pardon - lost election c. Jimmy Carter (1977) - waged war on crime - attempted Iran invasion - lost election d. Ronald Reagan (1981) - law and order president - increased funding

29. Rediscovery (1) US Supreme Court - Reagan’s legacy - first female justice (2) Military into war on drugs - allow to patrol streets - involved with civilian enforcement - violation of Constitution e. George Bush (1989) - international president

30. Rediscovery - ignored local issues (1) War on drugs - Drug Czar - asset forfeiture - “Weed and Seed” (2) US Supreme Court - conservative justices - Clarence Thomas

31. Rediscovery - lost election f. Bill Clinton (1993) - liberal democrat - supported welfare programs (1) Supported law enforcement - community oriented policing - 100,000 new police officers (2) US Supreme Court

32. Rediscovery - Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Stephen Breyer (2) Elected two terms g. George W. Bush (2001) - contested election - 9/11 - supports law enforcement - two Supreme Court appointees - cutting health/welfare programs for war

33. US Supreme Court Current Justices: a. John Roberts, (53) Chief Justice - nominated by George H. W. Bush b. Elena Kagen (50) - nominated by Barack Obama c. Samuel Alito (58) - nominated by George H. W. Bush

34. Court d. Sonia Sotomayor (55) - nominated by Barack Obama e. Anthony M. Kennedy (71) - nominated by Ronald Reagan f. David Hackett Souter (68) - nominated by George W. Bush g. Clarence Thomas (60) - nominated by George W. Bush

35. Court h. Ruth Bader Ginsburg (75) - nominated by Bill Clinton i. Stephen G. Breyer (69) - nominated by Bill Clinton

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