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DIRECT SEEDING Establishing A Forest With Seed BENEFITS OF DIRECT SEEDING VS. TREE SEEDLINGS WHY DIRECT SEED? Larger Planting Window, Fall Season Utilize Local or In-State Seed Resource More Trees/Acre-Quicker Canopy-Form Undisturbed Root System/No Transplant Overwhelm The Critters

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DIRECT SEEDING

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DIRECT SEEDING

Establishing A Forest

With Seed


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BENEFITSOFDIRECT SEEDINGVS.TREE SEEDLINGS


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WHY DIRECT SEED?

  • Larger Planting Window, Fall Season

  • Utilize Local or In-State Seed Resource

  • More Trees/Acre-Quicker Canopy-Form

  • Undisturbed Root System/No Transplant

  • Overwhelm The Critters

  • More Natural Appearance

  • Shorter Maintenance Period

  • Potentially Less Expensive


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WHY PLANT SEEDLINGS?

  • Seed germination is uncertain, seedlings are a known quantity

  • There are more potentially damaging agents for seed than seedlings

  • Seed crops and seed availability are uncertain

  • Seedlings may have a head start the first year, depending on size and quality


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SEED COLLECTION

Determine your needs

Scout potential seed trees

Use a Bag-a-Nut

Be efficient

Float, sort/inspect, store


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Tree Planting Plan, an attachment to NRCS Conservation Plan, will prescribe the seed per acre and match species to site.

DetermineYour Needs, Match Species to Site


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Scout Potential Seed Trees

  • Be sure of species ID

  • Locate on a large scale map

  • Red oak group visible in July, white by August

  • Obtain permission to collect


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Locate Heavy Seed Producers


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Mechanized Seed Collection


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Using a Bag-a-Nut

  • Up to 1 bushel (about 50 pounds) per hour of medium-sized acorns

  • Can pay for itself in less than 8 hours

  • Works best in mowed grass situation, with some site prep

  • Match machine to seed size

  • For more info. see www.directseeding.org


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Rakes

Blower/vac

Bag-a-Nut

Containers

soaking pool

sorting table

onion bags

cold storage

Be efficient, gear up before you start:


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Be prepared: In central Illinois seed begins to drop late-August to mid-September

White oak group is usually first, then red, pin drops late

Concentrate on trees with a BIG seed drop

Collect after windy storms

Collect BEFORE leaves fall

After leaves fall use blower/vac to remove leaves

Be Efficient


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Soaking Seed

Sorting Seed


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Bagging and Storing Seed


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Purchasing Seed

  • Local seed is the best seed

  • Contact District Forester and/or SWCD

  • Check www.directseeding.org

  • Follow “Seed Care and Handling”


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“Float” collected seed, soak ALL seed

Immerse 4-8 hours

Inspect at least 10 seeds/bushel

If its your own seed inspect on the sorting table, before bagging

Cut or crack test, look for seed that is: filled, light-colored, bug-free

Bag in porous, woven (“onion”) sacks

Store in cool, well-ventilated location, protected from predators

If delayed more than 2 weeks, place in plastic bags and refrigerate @ 33-40 degrees

Seed Care and Handling


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Inspect All Tree Seed

  • Use a hand pruner for acorns, a hammer for walnuts & hickorys

  • Keep seed that is:

    • Filled

    • Bright, uniform color

    • undamaged

  • Discard seed that is

    • Shriveled, shrunken

    • Dark colored or mottled

    • Cracked, holed, or otherwise damaged


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Use High Quality Seed

  • Plant only undamaged, mature, viable seed

  • Cut or crack test at least 10 random seeds per bushel

  • If non-viable seed is found, increase seeding rate by the same percentage


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PLANTING TIME

-ASAP, Fall is best

-white oaks-must fall plant, especially Quercus alba & chinkapin

-if properly stored, plant any time ground is not frozen or dry

-very risky between June and September


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Row Seeding

MINIMUM of 3,000 hard mast seed/acre

At 10’ row spacing, about 16” or less between seeds

Planting depth about 2X seed diameter, 1-4” depending on species

If no light seeded spp. nearby, add 1,000 seed/acre

Seeding Rates


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Broadcast Seeding

MINIMUM of 4,800 hard mast seed/acre

Planting depth about 2X seed diameter, 1-4” depending on species

If no light seeded spp. nearby, add 1,000 seed/acre

Seeding Rates


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Till and/or spray a minimum 2-foot radius circle or 4-foot wide band with trees or seed centered in the grass free area.

Grass species, esp. sod-forming, are death to trees.

Use snap trap survey to estimate potential rodent populations.

Site Preparation, Row Planting

Mow or till between rows to minimize rodent habitat


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Site Preparation, Broadcast

  • Crop ground

    • Disk Several Times

  • Pasture/Brome

    • Mow grass in August.

    • Spray 2 quarts of Roundup in September

    • Plow and Disk


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Row Seeding Equipment


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Row Seeding Equipment


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Modified Corn Planters


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Broadcast Seeding


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WEED CONTROL FOR DIRECT SEEDING

  • Competition must be controlled for minimum of two years

  • Good control of grasses and weeds is critical


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WEED CONTROL FOR DIRECT SEEDING

1st Year

Pre-emergents

Pendulum (Prowl) - 2qts/ac.

Goal - 2 to 4 qts/ac. (expensive)

Post-emergents

Fusilade - grasses 6-10”; 1 pint/ac. plus a non-ionic surfactant

OR

Envoy - grasses < 12”; 1 pint/ac.

Transline or Stinger - broadleaves; 1/2 pint/ac.

See: IL Forest Herbicide Manual, IL Direct Seeding Handbook, & www.directseeding.org.


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WEED CONTROL FOR DIRECT SEEDING

2nd Year

Pre-emergents

Pendulum (2 to 3 qts/ac). + Princep (2 to 4 qts/ac.)

Post-emergents (weeds no more than 6-12” tall)

Fusilade - grasses (1 pint/ac.)

Transline or Stinger - broadleaves (1/2 pint/ac.)

Oust - grasses and broadleaves (1/2 to 3/4 oz/ac.)

See: IL Forest Herbicide Manual, IL Direct Seeding Handbook, & www.directseeding.org.


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Maintain weed free area for 2-3 years

Replant if survival drops below 500 after 2 years, counting desirable natural regeneration.

Plantation Maintenance


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A little late-season

broadleaf competition is OK...

Grass competition is

a prescription for failure!


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Give these young trees a good start…weed-free


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IOWA ESTIMATED COSTS OF DIRECT SEEDING


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ILLINOIS ESTIMATED COSTS OF DIRECT SEEDING


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One and Two Year Old

Seedlings


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One Year Old Seedlings


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One Year Old Broadcast Seeding


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6 year old Black Walnut

5 year old SWO


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7 year old broadcast

5 year old broadcast


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Use a professional

Control weeds

Match spp. to site

Inspect all seed, carefully store & handle (cool & moist)

Survey and manage rodent populations

Use lots of seed

Use lots of species

Plant @ proper depth

Keys to Success with Direct Seeding


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KEEP ON GROWING!


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