Scanning Probe Microscopes SPM History of scanning probe microscopes SPM System Overview Piezoelectric Effect Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Force vs. Distance Curve Scanning modes Vendors http://mechmat.caltech.edu/~kaushik/park/contents.htm
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Non Contact AFM
Lateral Force Microscopy
Laser should be switched on to operate
Adjust detector alignment until red lights are out and green light is on.
Adjust cantilever alignment so laser is aligned on the cantilever
Top = 1+2
Bottom = 3+4
A = 1+3
B = 2+4
LFM records Top-Bottom and should be minimized
A+B Should be Maximized
A-B Should be Minimized
Piezoelectric materials are used to create a tube scanner. This forms one of the basic components of scanning probe microscopes.
These can be used to manipulate an object in three dimensions under electronic control.
Certain materials exhibit what is called the piezoelectric effect. (Demo)
This is an effect where changing the size of an object results in a voltage being generated by the object.
Conversely when a voltage is applied to a piezoelectric object then the size of the object changes.
PZT: Lead zirconium titanate is one of the most common piezoelectric materials.
Piezoelectric materials have an asymmetric unit cell like a dipole.
If these crystals are grown in the presence of a strong electric field then the crystal grains will align and the piezoelectric effect is created.
The central atom is displaced resulting in a unit cell with a dipole moment.
T > Tc
T < Tc
Not grown in an electric field
Grown in an electric field
Unit cell dipoles align
Nanoscience Instruments http://www.nanoscience.com/
Asylum Research http://www.asylumresearch.com/
JPK Instruments http://www.jpk.com/index2.htm
Molecular Imaging http://www.molec.com/
Nanofactory Instruments http://www.nanofactory.com/
Nanotec Electronica http://www.nanotec.es/
Pacific Nanotechnology http://www.pacificnanotech.com/
Nanoics Imaging http://www.nanonics.co.il/main/
Windsor Scientific http://www.windsor-ltd.co.uk/
LOT Oriel Ltd http://www.lot-oriel.com/uk/htm/all/home01.php
Atomic Force http://www.atomicforce.de/
Mikro Masch http://www.spmtips.com/
Surface Imaging Systems http://www.sis-gmbh.com/
Physik Instrumente http://www.polytecpi.com/
Advanced Surface Microscopy http://www.asmicro.com/
Nanograph Systems http://www.nanographsystems.co.uk/
Triple-O Microscopy http://www.triple-o.de/
Bioforce http://www.bioforcelab.com/Scanning Probe Microscope Vendors