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Scanning Probe Microscopes SPM History of scanning probe microscopes SPM System Overview Piezoelectric Effect Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Force vs. Distance Curve Scanning modes Vendors http://mechmat.caltech.edu/~kaushik/park/contents.htm

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Scanning probe microscopes spm l.jpg
Scanning Probe MicroscopesSPM

  • History of scanning probe microscopes

  • SPM System Overview

  • Piezoelectric Effect

  • Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

  • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

  • Force vs. Distance Curve

  • Scanning modes

  • Vendors

  • http://mechmat.caltech.edu/~kaushik/park/contents.htm

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History of Scanning Probe Microscopes

  • Phonograph record

http://www.nanoworld.org/english/museum.html

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History of Scanning Probe Microscopes

  • 1929

  • Gustev Schmalz

  • Stylus profiler

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History of Scanning Probe Microscopes

  • 1971

  • Russel Young

  • Topographiner

  • A non-contact stylus profiler

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History of Scanning Probe Microscopes

  • 1981

  • Gerd Binnig & Heinrich Rohrer

  • Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

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History of Scanning Probe Microscopes

  • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM/SFM)

  • Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate & Christoph Gerber

  • 1986

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SPM Scan Head

Non Contact AFM

STM

Force Modulation

AFM

Contact AFM

Lateral Force Microscopy

Laser should be switched on to operate

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SPM Scan Head

Second:

Adjust detector alignment until red lights are out and green light is on.

First:

Adjust cantilever alignment so laser is aligned on the cantilever

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Cartridges

AFM Cartridge

STM Cartridge

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Photodetector

Top = 1+2

1

2

Bottom = 3+4

3

4

A = 1+3

B = 2+4

LFM records Top-Bottom and should be minimized

A+B Should be Maximized

A-B Should be Minimized

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Scanning Tunneling Microscope

  • Applications

  • System Components

  • Tube scanner

  • Piezoelectric effect

  • Theory of operation

  • Operating modes

  • Advantages & Disadvantages

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Applications

  • High resolution images at atomic resolution.

  • Ability to manipulate individual atoms.

  • http://www.almaden.ibm.com/vis/stm/gallery.html

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Piezoelectric tube scanner

Piezoelectric materials are used to create a tube scanner. This forms one of the basic components of scanning probe microscopes.

These can be used to manipulate an object in three dimensions under electronic control.

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Piezoelectric Effect

Certain materials exhibit what is called the piezoelectric effect. (Demo)

This is an effect where changing the size of an object results in a voltage being generated by the object.

Conversely when a voltage is applied to a piezoelectric object then the size of the object changes.

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Piezoelectric Effect

PZT: Lead zirconium titanate is one of the most common piezoelectric materials.

Piezoelectric materials have an asymmetric unit cell like a dipole.

If these crystals are grown in the presence of a strong electric field then the crystal grains will align and the piezoelectric effect is created.

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Unit Cell with Dipole

The central atom is displaced resulting in a unit cell with a dipole moment.

Cubic

T > Tc

Tetragonal

T < Tc

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Piezoelectric EffectCrystal grains structure

Not grown in an electric field

Random orientation

Grown in an electric field

Unit cell dipoles align

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STM Theory of operation

Tunneling Current

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Operating modes

  • Constant height mode

    • Current changes exponentially

    • Requires a smooth surface

  • Constant current mode

    • Beware of insulators

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STM Advantages & Disadvantages

  • Advantages

    • Able to obtain very high resolution images of conductors and semiconductors.

    • Probe tips can be made out of wire.

    • Inexpensive to purchase ~ $10,000

  • Disadvantages

    • Will not work with insulators.

    • If there are insulating materials present on the sample you can crash the tip.

    • Often need to be used under vacuum.

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Scanning Tunneling Microscope

  • Applications

  • System Components

  • Tube scanner

  • Piezoelectric effect

  • Theory of operation

  • Operating modes

  • Advantages & Disadvantages

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Atomic Force Microscope

  • System Components

  • Force vs. Distance

  • Performance & Images

  • Scanning Modes & Probe Tips

  • Vendors

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Performance

  • The piezoelectric tubes have a movement resolution of 1 nm/volt.

  • Magnifications of 5,000,000x can be achieved.

  • Resolution of 10 pm

  • Can operate in air and under liquids

  • Atomic force microscopes can be used on many different surfaces.

  • AFM is a versatile and easy to use tool.

  • Images http://www.nanoscience.com/

  • AFM Activity

  • WS 13

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Scanning Modes and Probe Tips

  • Standard probe tips

  • High resolution probe tips

  • Magnetic force microscopy

  • Frictional force microscopy/Lateral force microscopy

  • Elasticity/hardness measurements/Force modulation microscopy

  • Scanning Capacitance

  • Thermal scanning microscopy – two different metals/ thermo couple

  • Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy/Light funnel

  • Piezoelectric cantilever

  • Electrostatic force microscopy

  • Dip pen nanolithography

  • Surface oxidation

  • Many different companies make probe tips for scanning microscopes.

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Veeco http://www.veeco.com/

JEOL http://www.jeol.com/

Nanoscience Instruments http://www.nanoscience.com/

Asylum Research http://www.asylumresearch.com/

JPK Instruments http://www.jpk.com/index2.htm

Molecular Imaging http://www.molec.com/

Nanofactory Instruments http://www.nanofactory.com/

Nanotec Electronica http://www.nanotec.es/

NT-MDT http://www.ntmdt.ru/

Quesant http://www.quesant.com/

WITec http://www.witec.de/

Pacific Nanotechnology http://www.pacificnanotech.com/

Nanoics Imaging http://www.nanonics.co.il/main/

Schaefer-TEC http://www.schaefer-tec.com/

Windsor Scientific http://www.windsor-ltd.co.uk/

LOT Oriel Ltd http://www.lot-oriel.com/uk/htm/all/home01.php

Atomic Force http://www.atomicforce.de/

Mikro Masch http://www.spmtips.com/

Surface Imaging Systems http://www.sis-gmbh.com/

Physik Instrumente http://www.polytecpi.com/

Accurion http://www.accurion.com/

Advanced Surface Microscopy http://www.asmicro.com/

Hysitron http://www.hysitron.com/

Infinitesima http://www.infinitesima.com/

Nanograph Systems http://www.nanographsystems.co.uk/

Nanonis http://www.nanonis.com/nanonis/avs/home/index.html

PSIA http://www.advancedspm.com/

Triple-O Microscopy http://www.triple-o.de/

Bioforce http://www.bioforcelab.com/

Scanning Probe Microscope Vendors

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Scanning Probe Microscopes

  • System Components

  • Force vs. Distance

  • Performance & Images

  • Scanning Modes & Probe Tips

  • Vendors

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Links

  • http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/how-afm/how-afm.html

  • http://www.ikm.uni-karlsruhe.de/forschung/pzt_webseiten/eng/basics/ferro_main_eng.html

  • http://cst-www.nrl.navy.mil/lattice/struk/pzt_t.html

  • http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/chm729/STMpage/stmconc.htm

  • http://www.2spi.com/catalog.html

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