Preservation access music archives at ircam as an online library collection
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Preservation = Access Music Archives at IRCAM as an Online Library Collection Michael Fingerhut Director, Multimedia Library IRCAM – Centre Pompidou Paris (France) Roadmap IRCAM Integrating collections Access Preservation Issues By-products

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Preservation access music archives at ircam as an online library collection l.jpg

Preservation = AccessMusic Archives at IRCAMas an Online Library Collection

Michael Fingerhut

Director, Multimedia LibraryIRCAM – Centre PompidouParis (France)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Roadmap

  • IRCAM

  • Integrating collections

  • Access

  • Preservation

  • Issues

  • By-products

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


Ircam i nstitut de r echerche et c oordination a coustique m usique l.jpg
IRCAM – Institut de recherche et coordination acoustique/musique

  • A multidisciplinary not-for-profit organization

    • Music and dance composition and production  audio (video) archives

    • R&D in acoustics, digital signal processing, real-time systems, perception and cognition, music representation  published texts

    • Degree-granting programs in computer music and musicology

    • Outreach (conferences, concerts)  published texts, audio archives

  • A brief history

    • 1970: President Pompidou asks Pierre Boulez to found an institute

    • 1976: Giuseppe di Giugno and his team produce the 4A

    • 1978: First concert in the Espro (modular concert hall)

    • 1981: 4X. Répons by Boulez

    • 1983: Ircam connects to int’l networks (uucp)

    • 1988: The graphical programming language Max (Miller Puckette)

    • 1992: Laurent Bayle director

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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The IRCAM documents until 1995

  • Publications

    • Articles in peer-reviewed external periodicals

    • IRCAM books and periodicals

    • Manuals (software, hardware, performance…)

    • Other (design documents, letters…)

  • Sound archives

    • Concerts and conferences since 1977

    • On analog and digital tapes

    • Could record but not listen to

  • Reference library

    • Books, scores, periodicals, LPs, CDs

    • Proprietary, stand-alone catalog

Inexistent as

a collection

Existent but

inaccessible

Own scores

unlistenable

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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The music library

  • Until 1995: a "traditional" library

    • Books, scores, periodicals on contemporary music and related fields

  • Since 1996: a public multimedia library

    • Books, scores, periodicals

    • Online material (mostly IRCAM’s):

      • Texts (music, sciences)

      • Audio (archives and commercial)

      • Video (documentary films)

      • CD-ROM

      • Databases

      • Internet

  • Open to everyone

    • Public:

      • Composers, choreographers, musicologists and performers; researchers; students…

      • any interested person

    • On- and off-site

Juxtaposition  integration

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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The Multimedia Library collections

Library system

bibliographic records

authority records

composers’ records

works records

Musical database

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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AccessPrinciples of organization

  • Establish links according to significance

    • Score – recording – music analysis – composer’s bio…

    • Specific links “into” the audio (and video):extension of URL fragment identifier to image, audio, video…

  • Unified structure, different paths and views

    • Collection searches

    • General catalog searches

    • Classification scheme

    • Floor plan

    • 3D (virtual reality) interface

  • Specific search tools

    • By detailed recording information

    • By instrumentation, by music genre…

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Archive recordings as library items

  • An archive recording is like

    • … a CD

    • … a copy of a work

  • It can be catalogued and referenced

    • Unimarc (with extensions for detailed instrumentation; performance?)

    • Uniform title allows one to find scores and recordings of the same work

  • It is accessed like an audio CD

    • Archives are compressed and stored on hard disks (RAID)

    • CDs are stored in jukeboxes

    • Listening on demand

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Gateway to the system

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Search by genre

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Search by instrumentation

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Links between documents

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Listening to a recording

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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DigitizationThe process

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Audio archives processing

  • Digitize old tapes

    • Digitization

    • Basic editing

  • Produce two mixed CDs

    • 1st track: metadata - detailed info about contents and event

    • 1 for archival purposes, 1 for library

  • (Verify quality and info)

  • Extract from CD to hard disk and compress

    • MPEG 1 Layer 2, CCETT software

  • (Verify quality)

  • Reference

    • Catalogues, databases

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Metadata contents (track 1)

  • Recording information

    • Date of digitization, technician’s name

    • Original tape inventory n°…

    • Number of tracks

  • Event information

    • Date, name, place…

    • Performers, orchestra, conductor…

  • Track information

    • Lecture/concert

    • Composer, title, duration…

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Issues

  • Rights

  • Personnel

  • Standards

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Rights

  • Rights holders for the archives

    • SACEM (Société des auteurs, compositeurs et éditeurs de musique): collects rights for composers and publishers

    • SPEDIDAM (Société de perception et de distribution des droits des artistes-interprètes de la musique et de la danse): collects rights for performers

    • EIC (Ensemble Intercontemporain): intellectual rights

  • Constraints

    • Economical: fixed fee per computer client (hence only on site)

    • Listeners should have no way to copy the music (hence no physical access; hence only on site)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Standards

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Library and related personnel

  • Sound engineer, technicians

    • Perform the technical steps from tape to compressed file

  • Musicologist

    • Validate the audio quality and the information

  • Cataloguers

    • Reference the material (with hyperlinks)

  • Computer scientist

    • Provide the tools and oversee the process

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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By-products

  • Online music analyses

  • Online synchronized scores and recordings

  • Multimedia products

  • Tools for research

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Excerpt of music analysis of Manoury’s En écho

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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An online score with audio: Ligeti’s Artikulation (the Horpartitur)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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An online score with audio: Ligeti’s Artikulation (Diagramme)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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An online score with audio:Xenakis’ Psappha

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Digitization = Preservation = Access?

  • Increasing volume of recordings

  • Media limited life-time

    • 10 – 20 years?

  • Obsolescence of hardware and software

  • Changing standards

    • AU, AIFF, ALAW, MP3, MPEG, MP3, MOD, MULAW, SND, VOC, WAV…

  • In order to preserve, transcode (and lose)

$ t = c

Digitization

Preservation = access

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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$t = c

  • Industry:

    • maximum return in minimum time

  • Academia:

    • maximum publications (= salary) in minimum time

  • Technology:

    • the more technology - the less it lasts

  • Access:

    • the more “readers” - the less the document lasts (except for the Bible)

  • Archives:

    • maximum time in minimum cost

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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Current and future research

  • New standards

    • Audio/video: MP3, Real audio, Real video, Quicktime?

    • Metadata: XML?

  • Searching tools

    • Musical material parsing into motifs for automatic classification

    • Search by excerpts (not note, phrase or melody)

    • Psychoacoustical criteria

  • Online pedagogical and musicological tools

    • Multimedia

    • 3D, virtual reality, virtual worlds

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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References

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000


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