India hunger poverty and vulnerability during fast pace of economic growth
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INDIA: Hunger, Poverty and Vulnerability during Fast Pace of Economic Growth. Abusaleh Shariff National Council of Applied Economic Research New Delhi - 110 002 E-mail: [email protected] Taking Action for the World’s Poor and Hungry People Beijing, China. October 17-19, 2007.

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India hunger poverty and vulnerability during fast pace of economic growth

INDIA:Hunger, Poverty and Vulnerability during Fast Pace of Economic Growth

Abusaleh Shariff

National Council of Applied Economic Research

New Delhi - 110 002

E-mail: [email protected]

Taking Action for the World’s Poor and Hungry People

Beijing, China. October 17-19, 2007


Macro national perspective essential
Macro-National PerspectiveEssential

  • Towards Faster and More Inclusive Growth – A New Vision !

  • Sectoral Growth – sectors of production and distribution – fast pace of growth in Services, followed by Industry. Agriculture is cause of worry! Labour mobility from inefficient to efficient sectors is most difficult !


Macro national perspective 11th plan
Macro-National Perspective11th Plan

  • Development programmes and projects must link themselves with the macro-national objectives

  • 9 % GDP GR /32 % Savings Rate / 35% Investment

  • Bharat Nirman – Infrastructure/Information/water

  • Nat. Rural Employment Guarantee

  • JN-Urban Renewal Mission

  • Inclusive Development –ICDS/Nat. Rural Health Mission /Sanitation

  • A set of Monitorable Targets



Macro regional growth
Macro-Regional Growth (RP) changes

  • Regional development and political economy within the multi-party coalition frame is important.

  • Equity, inclusiveness and people’s participation

  • Balance between management of the programmes and adhoc political interferences.


Balanced regional state level development
Balanced Regional/State level Development (RP) changes

  • Factors that prevents growth from reaching specific regions and sectors for example where the poor are concentrated – UP, Bihar, Orissa etc – agriculture, informal self-employed, casual labourers etc.

  • To ensure that growth strategies translate into poverty reduction, there is a need to further strengthen the understanding as to how inter-sectoral mobility can be enhanced.




Pro poor equitious growth
Pro-Poor & Equitious Growth (RP) changes

  • National objective as well as a dominant part of the MDGs – global concern as well.

  • India hosts the largest number of poor compared to any country in the world. 300 million – about a quarter of all Indians.

  • Programme personnel and Evaluators need to strengthen the understanding of what keeps the poor from participating in the growth process.


Rural urban linkages
Rural – Urban Linkages (RP) changes

  • How can the urban-rural linkages and inter-sectoral mobility can be enhanced within the growing economy context?

  • The growth story of India is highly urban biased!

  • Strengthening urban-rural linkages and strategies to improve rural productivity require more attention. Growth causes poverty reduction more effectively when it occurs in sectors and regions where most of the poor work for living– for example, agriculture sector in India.


Gender equity
Gender Equity (RP) changes

  • Given the uniqueness of Indian patriarchy which favours absolute control of resources by men, it is important to ensure programme focus on Women. The extension of this approach is to cover children who have a limited voice in programmes.

  • All development parameters which have individualistic relevance are gender blind. Gender Sensitivity essential in education, health, nutrition, employment generation and social safety net programmes.

  • Child focus is necessary as they are future Human Capital and Resource.


Social group identity and equity
Social-Group Identity and Equity (RP) changes

  • India is unique with respect to its spectacular plurality in terms of religious and caste identities. Such identities are so revealing and upfront that these very identities must be used to ensure equity in programme and project access.

  • Focus on Dalits, Adivasis and Minority Muslims is essential.

  • Recent fast economic growth should exhibit better policy management so as to champion policies for social inclusion.

  • There is ample evidence across the world that high growth can be achieved alongside policies for social inclusion.



Head count ratio hcr and growth of gdp
Head Count Ratio (HCR) and Growth of GDP (RP) changes

Numbers on top of the bar indicate number of poor in million

Source: Different NSSO Rounds and 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey 365 days reference period


Hunger
Hunger (RP) changes


Malnutrition
Malnutrition (RP) changes


Change in food basket
Change in Food Basket (RP) changes

  • Shift Away from Cereal Consumption

    • The food habits even among the poorer households have changed over years

    • This is more due to improvements in food supply especially after mid 1970 since the introduction of Green Revolution – HYV and chemical fertilizers

  • Increase in Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, meat and fish products


Incidence of poverty hcrs by state 2004 05 all india
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) by State - 2004-05 ALL INDIA

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey.


Incidence of poverty hcrs by state 2004 05 rural
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) by State - 2004-05 RURAL

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Incidence of poverty hcrs by state 2004 05 urban
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) by State - 2004-05 URBAN

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Incidence of poverty hcrs by source of household income 2004 05
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) URBANby Source of Household Income - 2004-05

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey






Average daily wage of agricultural and non agricultural laborers aged 15 64 rural urban group
Average Daily Wage of Agricultural and 15-64 years, All IndiaNon-agricultural Laborers aged 15-64,Rural-Urban Group


Average No. of Agri. Wage Days 15-64 years, All Indiaamong 15-64 Year old by State


Average no of non agri wage days among 15 64 year old by state
Average No. of Non-Agri. Wage Days 15-64 years, All Indiaamong 15-64 Year old by State




Incidence of poverty hcrs 2004 05 by household source of income and social group
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) - 2004-05 by Source of Income, TotalHousehold Source of Income and Social Group

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Incidence of poverty hcrs by state among the agriculture labour in india 2004 05
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) by State among Source of Income, Totalthe Agriculture Labour in India - 2004-05

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Incidence of poverty hcrs 2004 05 among casual labour in india
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) - 2004-05 Source of Income, Total among Casual Labour in India

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Incidence of poverty hcrs 2004 05 levels of education and place of residence
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) - 2004-05 Source of Income, TotalLevels of Education and Place of Residence

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Incidence of poverty hcrs 2004 05 by levels of education and social groups
Incidence of Poverty (HCRs) - 2004-05 Source of Income, Total by Levels of Education and Social Groups

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Mpce class distributions by srcs 2004 05
MPCE Class distributions by Source of Income, TotalSRCs - 2004-05


Mpce according to urban size class 1999 00
MPCE according to Urban Size Class - 1999-00 Source of Income, Total

Based on 365 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Proportion of population covered through the issuance of ration cards by poverty status 2004 05
Proportion of Population Covered through the Issuance of Ration Cards by Poverty Status - 2004-05

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


The poor not covered by the issuance of ration card by state 2004 05
The Poor not Covered by the Issuance of Ration Card by State - 2004-05

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


The non poor covered by the issuance of ration card by state 2004 05
The Non-poor Covered by the Issuance of Ration Card by State - 2004-05

Based on 30 days reference period

Source: NSSO 61st Round Consumer Expenditure Survey


Thank You - 2004-05


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