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Plant Science. A Unit of the Michigan State University Extension Master Gardener Curriculum. Plant Science. Topics. Plant science Plant growth and development Plant propagation. Plant Science. Plant Science. Botany Horticulture Agronomy Forestry. Plants - Physiology - Genetics

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Plant Science

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Plant Science

A Unit of the

Michigan State University Extension

Master Gardener Curriculum


Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science

  • Plant growth and development

  • Plant propagation


Plant Science

Plant Science

  • Botany

  • Horticulture

  • Agronomy

  • Forestry


Plants

- Physiology

- Genetics

- Taxonomy

Cultivated plants

Ornamentals

Flowers

Vegetables

Fruit

Plant Science

Botany Compared to Horticulture


Plant Science

Ornamentals -Landscape Horticulture


Plant Science

Flowers - Floriculture


Plant Science

Vegetables - Olericulture


Plant Science

Fruit - Pomology


Plant Science

Plant Science

  • Anatomy - Structure

  • Physiology - Function

  • Morphology - Shape


Plant Science

What Is a Plant?

  • Living organism

  • Contains chlorophyll

  • Can manufacture its own food

  • Multicellular with rigid cell walls


Non-Vascular Plants

Vascular Plants

Plant Science

Plant Kingdom


Plant Science

Vascular Plants

Flowering

Angiosperms

Non-flowering

Gymnosperms

“Others”


Plant Science

Angiosperms

  • Monocots

  • Dicots


Plant Science

Cotyledons

  • Monocots

    • One

  • Dicots

    • Two


Monocots

Usually parallel

Dicots

Usually net-like

Plant Science

Leaf Venation


Plant Science

Flower Parts

  • Monocots

    • Usually in threes

  • Dicots

    • Usually four or five


Plant Science

Vascular System

  • Monocots

    • Complex arrangement

  • Dicots

    • Arranged in a ring


Plant Science

Physiological Differences

  • Monocots are not killed by broadleaf herbicides

  • Dicots will be killed by broadleaf herbicides


Plant Science

Response to Herbicides


Plant Science

Plant Classification

  • Family - Rosaceae

  • Genus - Rosa

  • Specific epithet - hybrida

  • Cultivar – ‘Nearly Wild’


Plant Science

Common Names

  • Goutweed

  • Bishop’s Weed

  • Bishop’s Goutweed

  • Snow on the Mountain


Plant Science

Binomial Nomenclature

  • Developed by Carl von Linné in 1753

  • Two word name for each plant or animal

  • Genusname followed by a descriptive name or specific epithet

  • Together the two words identify a species


Plant Science

Binomial Nomenclature

Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’


Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs

What Makes Up a Plant?


Plant Science

Plant Cell

Cell wall

Plasma membrane

Vacuole

Chloroplast

Cytoplasm

Nucleus


Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs


Plant Science

Plant Tissues

  • Meristematic

  • Dermal

  • Vascular


Plant Science

Meristematic Tissues

  • Apical meristem

    • Located at the tip of a shoot or root

  • Lateral meristem

    • Formed in stems and roots of many plants

    • Allows plant to grow in diameter

    • Vascular cambium is a lateral meristem


Plant Science

Dermal Tissue

  • Epidermis

    • Cuticle

    • Stomata

  • Periderm

    • Protective covering

    • Lenticels


Plant Science

Lenticels


Plant Science

Vascular Tissue

  • Xylem

    • Conduct water and minerals within the plant

  • Phloem

    • Move food (carbohydrates) produced by photosynthesis to other parts of the plant


Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs


Animals

Digestive

Circulatory

Endocrine

Plants

Root

Shoot

Plant Science

Organ Systems


Plant Science

Plant Organs

  • Roots

  • Stems

  • Buds

  • Leaves

  • Reproductive structures


Plant Science

Root Functions

  • Anchorage

  • Absorption

  • Storage


Plant Science

Root Structure

Root Hair

Root Cap


Plant Science

Root Type

Fibrous

Tap

Tuberous


Plant Science

Plant Organs

  • Roots

  • Stems

  • Buds

  • Leaves

  • Reproductive structures


Plant Science

Stem Function

  • Supports buds and leaves

  • Provides structure for vascular system


Plant Science

Stem Structure

  • Xylem

  • Phloem

  • Cambium

Cambium

Xylem

Phloem


Plant Science

Stem Structure

  • Nodes

  • Internodes

  • Lenticels

Node

Internode

Node


Crowns

Tillers and stolens

Spurs

Tubers

Rhizomes

Corms

Bulbs

Plant Science

Stem Type


Plant Science

Stem Type - Crown


Plant Science

Stem Type – Tillers and Stolens


Plant Science

Stem Type - Spur


Plant Science

Stem Type - Tuber


Plant Science

Stem Type - Rhizome


Plant Science

Stem Type - Corm


Plant Science

Stem Type - Bulb


Plant Science

Stem Type

  • Crown

  • Tillers and stolens

  • Spur

  • Tuber

  • Rhizome

  • Corm

  • Bulb

  • Adaptations


Tendrils

Thorns

Plant Science

Stem Modifications


Plant Science

Plant Organs

  • Roots

  • Stems

  • Buds

  • Leaves

  • Reproductive structures


Plant Science

Bud Structure

Bud scales

Embryonic leaves

Shoot apex


Plant Science

Types of Buds

  • Leaf bud

  • Flower bud

  • Terminal bud

  • Lateral bud

  • Adventitious bud


Plant Science

Leaf Bud


Plant Science

Flower Bud


Plant Science

Lateral and Terminal Buds

Terminal Bud

Lateral Bud


Plant Science

Adventitious Bud


Plant Science

Plant Organs

  • Roots

  • Stems

  • Buds

  • Leaves

  • Reproductive structures


Plant Science

Leaf Functions

  • Absorption

  • Protection

  • Reproduction


Plant Science

External Leaf Structure

Leaf

Blade

Petiole


Plant Science

Internal Leaf Structure


Plant Science

Leaf Type

Simple

Compound


Plant Science

Compound Leaves

Palmate

Odd Pinnate

Even Pinnate

(Horse Chestnut)

(Locust)

(Ash)


Plant Science

Leaf Venation

Parallel

Pinnate

Palmate


Plant Science

Leaf Shape


Plant Science

Leaf Margins


Plant Science

Leaf Arrangement

Whorled

Opposite

Alternate


Plant Science

Maple

  • Type?

  • Shape?

  • Venation?

  • Margin?

  • Arrangement?


Plant Science

Oak

  • Type?

  • Shape?

  • Venation?

  • Margin?

  • Arrangement?


Plant Science

Ash

  • Type?

  • Shape?

  • Venation?

  • Margin?

  • Arrangement?


Plant Science

Leaf Modifications

Barrel Cactus

White Pine


Plant Science

Plant Organs

  • Roots

  • Stems

  • Buds

  • Leaves

  • Reproductive structures


Plant Science

Reproductive Structures

Flowers

Fruits

Seeds


Plant Science

Flowers


Plant Science

Flower Type

Tulip

Queen Anne’s Lace


Plant Science

Flower Structure

Corolla

Receptacle

Sepals


Plant Science

Flower Structure

Anther

Stigma

Style

Filament


Plant Science

Flower Structure

Stamen

Pistil

Ovary

Ovule

Ovary


Plant Science

Flower Function

  • Pollination

    • Wind, water, animals


Plant Science

Flower Function

  • Pollination

    • Wind, water, animals

  • Fertilization

    • Union of the male sperm nucleus from the pollen grain and the female egg from the ovary


Plant Science

Pollination Adaptations

  • Self-pollinating

  • Cross-pollinating


Plant Science

Monoecious Plants

Male

Female


Plant Science

Dioecious Plants

Female

Male


Plant Science

Reproductive Structures

  • Flowers

  • Fruits

  • Seeds


Plant Science

Fruit or Vegetable?


Plant Science

Fruit Structure

Ovary wall

(Fleshy part)

Fertilized ovules

(seeds)


Plant Science

Fruit Function

  • Protects seeds as they develop

  • Keeps seeds moist

  • Acts as a dispersal mechanism


Plant Science

Fruit Types

  • Simple

    • Apple

  • Aggregate

    • Raspberry

  • Multiple

    • Corn


Plant Science

Reproductive Structures

  • Flowers

  • Fruits

  • Seeds


Plant Science

Seed Type


Plant Science

Seed Structure

Monocot

Dicot


Plant Science

Seed Germination


Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science

  • Plant growth and development

  • Plant propagation


Plant Science

Plant Functions

  • Photosynthesis

  • Respiration

  • Transpiration


Plant Science

Photosynthesis

  • Occurs in cells that contain chloroplasts

  • Uses water and carbon dioxide

  • Stores energy in the form of sugar

  • Occurs in light


Plant Science

Respiration

  • Uses food and oxygen to release energy

  • Produces water and carbon dioxide

  • Occurs in dark as well as light

  • Occurs in all cells


Plant Science

Transpiration

  • Water loss through the stomata

  • Moves molecules through the plant

  • Cools leaf surfaces and moderates plant temperature

  • Maintains turgor (firmness)


Light

Temperature

Water

Humidity

Nutrition

Plant Science

Plants & Their Environment


Plant Science

Light

  • Quantity (intensity)

  • Quality (wave length)

  • Duration (photoperiod)


Plant Science

Light Quantity Varies with

  • Time of day

  • Latitude

  • Time of year

  • Cloud density

  • Pollution

  • Moisture and haze

  • Elevation

  • Angle of the sun


Plant Science

Plant Morphology Changes with Light Intensity

  • Higher Light

  • More leaves

  • Shorter internodes

  • Leaves more vertical

  • Lower Light

  • Fewer leaves

  • Longer internodes

  • Leaves more horizontal


Plant Science

Plant Anatomy Changes with Light Intensity

  • Higher Light

  • Thicker leaves

  • More cell layers

  • More chloroplasts

  • Lower Light

  • Thinner leaves

  • Fewer cell layers

  • Fewer chloroplasts


Plant Science

Tight spacing, low light

Wide spacing, high light


Plant Science

Light Quality


Plant Science

Blue Light

  • Important for chlorophyll synthesis

  • Reduces stem elongation

  • Promotes greening of germinating seedlings


Plant Science

Red Light

  • Red light inhibits stem elongation and promotes branching

  • When combined with blue light encourages flowering and fruit set


Plant Science

Influence of Light Quality on Coreopsis lanceolata

Fluorescent

Incandescent


Plant Science

Photoperiodic Response

  • Short-day plants

    • Poinsettia, chrysanthemums

  • Long-day plants

    • Marigold, Rudbeckia, many vegetables

  • Day-neutral plants

    • Tomato, impatiens, African violet


Plant Science

Temperature

  • Affects productivity and plant growth

  • Cold temperature requirements

  • Can be used to manipulate flowering and plant height


Plant Science

Temperature

+DIF

+DIF

Day cooler than night

-DIF

shorter plants

Day warmer than night

+DIF

taller plants

–DIF

–DIF

DT = day temperature

NT = night temperature


Plant Science

Cooling Duration Influences Flowering


Plant Science

Plant Genetics

Astilbe chinensis pumila

Astilbe chinensis ‘Superba’


Plant Science

Plant Hormones

  • Auxins

  • Gibberellins

  • Cytokinins

  • Ethylene

  • Abscisic acid


Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science

  • Plant growth and development

  • Plant propagation


Plant Science

Propagation Techniques

  • Seeds or spores

  • Division

  • Cuttings

  • Tissue culture

  • Grafting

  • Layering

Vegetative

propagation


Plant Science

Plant Life Cycles

Annual

Perennial

Biennial


Plant Science

Sexual Propagation


Plant Science

Seed

  • Advantages

    • Often the easiest and least-expensive method

    • Can produce large number of plants readily

  • Disadvantages

    • May not be reliable or true

    • Uniformity in seedlings can be poor


Plant Science

Divisions

  • Rhizomes

  • Stolons

  • Tubers and tuberous roots

  • Bulbs and corms


Plant Science

Division

  • Advantages

    • Produces large plants more quickly

    • Time to flower is generally shorter

    • Plants are identical to the parent

  • Disadvantages

    • More labor to dig and divide plants

    • Diseases and insect problems may be carried from the parent plant


Plant Science

Cuttings

  • Hardwood

    • Stem cuttings

  • Softwood

    • Stem cuttings

    • Root cuttings

    • Leaf cuttings


Plant Science

Cuttings

  • Advantages

    • Large numbers of genetically identical plants

    • Propagules are generally uniform

  • Disadvantages

    • Require controlled environments for propagation

    • Must have stock or mother plants

    • Diseases and viruses may be carried from infected plants


Plant Science

Tissue Culture


Plant Science

Tissue Culture

  • Advantages

    • Propagules are generally very uniform

    • Thousands of plants from a small amount of tissue

    • Less likely to have disease problems

  • Disadvantages

    • Requires controlled, sterile facilities and environments

    • Propagation time is long and propagules are often expensive


Plant Science

Grafting


Plant Science

Grafting

  • Advantages

    • You can combine attractive features of two plants

    • Works well for plants that a difficult to propagate in other ways

  • Disadvantages

    • Scion and root stock must be compatible

    • Requires skill


Plant Science

Layering

  • Tip layering

  • Air layering


Plant Science

Layering

  • Advantages

    • Easy to do

    • Doesn’t require expensive equipment or expertise

  • Disadvantage

    • Air layering root formation is slow and may take two to three months or longer


Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Hosta


Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Chrysanthemum


Plant Science

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Crabapple


Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Redosier Dogwood


Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Dieffenbachia


Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Geraniums


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