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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11). Gap 2 Physical Evidence Servicescapes Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy. Gap 2. Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2. Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations. Key Factors Related to Physical Evidence:

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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)

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Physical evidence and the servicescape chapter 11 l.jpg

Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)

  • Gap 2

  • Physical Evidence

  • Servicescapes

  • Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


Key factors leading to provider gap 2 l.jpg

Gap

2

Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2

Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations

  • Key Factors Related to Physical Evidence:

    • Incompatible or inconsistent

    • Overpromising through

    • Lack of

    • Failure to develop Tangibles in line with customer expectations

    • Servicescape design does not

    • Inadequate maintenance and updating of

Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


Physical evidence l.jpg

Physical Evidence

  • includes:

    (1) = the environment where the service is performed and where

    • background characteristics (furnishings, noise, color)

    • signs

      (2) that facilitate performance or communication of the service

    • can include appearance of personnel or materials

    • examples:

      • bank statements, travel brochures, business cards

      • mementos, souvenirs

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


Elements of physical evidence l.jpg

Facility exterior

Business cards

Stationery

Exterior design

Billing statements

Signage

Reports

Parking

Employee dress

Landscape

Uniforms

Surrounding environment

Brochures

Internet/Web pages

Virtual Servicescape

Facility interior

Interior design

Equipment

Signage

Layout

Air quality/temperature

Elements of Physical Evidence

Table 10.1

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Examples of Physical Evidence fromthe Customer’s Point of View

Service

Physical evidence

Servicescape

Other tangibles

Insurance

Not applicable

Policy itself

Billing statements

Periodic updates

Company brochure

Letters/cards

Hospital

Building exterior

Uniforms

Parking

Reports/stationery

Signs

Billing statements

Waiting areas

Admissions office

Patient care room

Medical equipment

Recovery room

Airline

Airline gate area

Tickets

Airplane exterior

Food

Airplane interior (décor, seats, air

Uniforms

quality)

Express mail

Not applicable

Packaging

Trucks

Uniforms

Computers

Sporting

Parking, Seating, Restrooms

Signs

event

Stadium exterior

Tickets

Ticketing area, Concession Areas

Program

Table 10.2

Entrance,

Playing Field

Uniforms


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Servicescape Issues

  • Servicescape Usage:

    • (customer only)

    • (both customer and employee)

    • (employee only)

  • Complexity of the Servicescape:

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape

Table 11.3

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Roles of the Servicescape

  • P

    • conveys

    • Influences

  • F

    • facilitates

      • provides information (how am I to act?)

      • facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?)

  • S

    • facilitates interaction between:

  • D

    • sets provider apart from

      • e.g.,

      • e.g.,

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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A Framework for Understanding Environment-User Relationships in Service Organizations

HOLISTIC

ENVIRONMENT

INTERNAL

RESPONSES

BEHAVIOR

PHYSICAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

DIMENSIONS

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Individual Behaviors

Employee Responses

Ambient Conditions

Space/Function

Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts

Perceived

Servicescape

Social Interactions between and among customer and employees

Customer Responses

Individual Behaviors

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Figure 11.2

Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner (1992)

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Dimensions of the Servicescape

  • Ambient Conditions

  • Spatial Layout and Functionality

  • Signs, Symbols, Artifacts

  • Colors

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Use of Color in the Servicescape

  • interior design (warm colors)

    • red: love, romance, sex, courage, danger, fire, sinful, warmth, excitement, vigor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm, and stop

    • yellow: sunlight, warmth, cowardice, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory, brightness, caution

    • orange: sunlight, warmth, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory

  • interior design (cool colors)

    • blue: coolness, aloofness, fidelity, calmness, piety, masculine, assurance, sadness

    • green: coolness, restful, peace, freshness, growth, softness, richness, go

    • violet: coolness, retiring, dignity, rich

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy

ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler


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