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Science applications of high resolution water level observations Water level is a key remotely sensed observation of the momentum equation Mobile Bay Apalachicola River MS Delta South West Pass Science applications of high resolution water level observations Mesoscale energy

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Science applications of high resolution water level observations

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Science applications of high resolution water level observations

Water level is a key remotely sensed observation of the momentum equation


Mobile

Bay

Apalachicola

River

MS Delta

South West Pass

Science applications of high resolution water level observations

Mesoscale energy

Tide and wind-driven inundation

River effects on optical properties

Surface wave dissipation


50 m

150 m

500 m

1000 m

Do we have sufficient observations to determine energy exchange between the surface and deep water?

  • 1/25° resolution Gulf of Mexico

  • Assimilated Jason-1, ENVISAT, GFO

  • Color is surface height

  • Vectors are 500m currents

  • Baroclinic shear exchanges potential and kinetic energy between deep and surface waters

  • 14 Acoustic doppler current profilers deployed May 2004 – March 2005

-40

(cm)

40

Hogan and Zamudio, work under way


Correlation of along-shelfbreak currents

NOGAPS, Assim

NOGAPS, Assim 2

Hogan and Zamudio, work under way


Correlation of along-shelfbreak currents

NOGAPS, Assim

NOGAPS, Assim 2

A1/A2

Hogan and Zamudio, work under way


Mobile

Bay

Apalachicola

River

MS Delta

South West Pass

Science applications of high resolution water level observations

Mesoscale energy

Tide and wind-driven inundation

River effects on biology and optical properties

Surface wave dissipation


Are there sufficient observations to understand inundation physics?

Hurricane Katrina Strom Surge/Inundation Along The Mississippi Gulf Coast

Bay St. Louis

feet

Several months of work to get this.

Why?

Blain and Massey, Marine Tech., submitted 2006


Model (red), Observations (black)

High Water Mark (ft)

Mean Abs error = 3.07 ft

Mean Underprediction = 2.32 ft

Mean Overprediction = 3.45 ft

Longitude (deg)

Many physical processes influence results

  • Wind forcing

  • Bottom drag (flat land, grass, shrubs, trees, houses, …)

  • Morphological changes

Comparison to 27 USGS High Water Mark Locations

Topography (Land +, Water -) in feet

Blain and Massey, Marine Tech., submitted 2006


Observations through tide cycles are required to understand and test the relevant physics

Water line observed from visible imagery

Ebb Tide

Flood Tide

Dry areas appear gray

MODIS

(250 m)

White lines show coastline from a global database.

Massey, work under way, 2006


Massey, work under way, 2006


Mobile

Bay

Apalachicola

River

MS Delta

South West Pass

Science applications of high resolution water level observations

Mesoscale energy

Tide and wind-driven inundation

River effects on biology and optical properties

Surface wave dissipation


Correlation between optical absorption and Mississippi River discharge

Chlorophyll absorption

CDOM absorption

  • Monthly composite images over 2000-2004

  • Monthly averaged observed river outflow

Green et al., Montreal, 2006


MODIS 250

Discharge event, March 17-23, 2004

Blain et al., RSCME meeting, Hallifax, 2006


m/s

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

River discharge and local circulation are required to predict particle fate

MAR 17

MAR 19

MAR 21

Current Magnitude

(Tides+ Winds + River Forcing)

1 particle every hour

Blain et al., RSCME meeting, Hallifax, 2006


Mobile

Bay

Apalachicola

River

MS Delta

South West Pass

Science applications of high resolution water level observations

Mesoscale energy

Tide and wind-driven inundation

River effects on biology and optical properties

Surface wave dissipation


Do we have sufficient observations to determine wave energy dissipation mechanisms nearshore?

P4

P3

P2

P1

  • Pressure gauges along transect to beach

  • Wave rider buoy for boundary conditions

Rogers et al., work under way, 2006


Pressure gauge spectra at p4 with and without fluid mud layer dissipation (Ng, 1974 formulation)

Wave rider buoy wavenumber spectrum

Energy spectrum at P4, near shore

Rogers et al., work under way, 2006


Wave rider buoy wavenumber spectrum

  • Possible dissipation :

  • Fluid mud layer

  • Form drag from sand ripples

  • Wave energy matches observations with two possible mechanisms, though insufficient information to separate the two

  • Additional areas must be observed and theory tested

Bathymetry along transect

Integrated spectral energy

Integrated spectral energy

Distance from shore (km)

Rogers et al., work under way, 2006


Mobile

Bay

Apalachicola

River

MS Delta

South West Pass

Science applications of high resolution water level observations

Mesoscale energy

Tide and wind-driven inundation

River effects on biology and optical properties

Surface wave dissipation


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