MEMORY: MODELS, STRUCTURES, PROCESSES
AcknowledgmentsPlease note that some of the figures and pictures included were adapted from:http://www.mtsu.edu/~sschmidt/Cognitive/outline.htmlwww2.una.edu/psychology/py385/goldstein%20chp5-1.ppt psy-www-old.psy.ed.ac.uk/Local/Lectures/Psych3blogie/Level3Lecture6.ppthttp://www.scottsdalecc.edu/ricker/psy101/readings/section_2/images/amnesia.jpeghttp://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/fruitsimages.new.htmhttp://ausmall.com.au/freegraf/freegrfa.phphttp://www.dreamstime.com/free-photoshttp://www.allaboutyourownwebsite.com/free_graphics.shtml#photoshttp://desktoppub.about.com/od/freeclipart/Free_Clip_Art.htmhttp://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=freeimages.com&gbv=2&aq=9s&oq=free+imageshttp://www.rediff.com/ishare/photohttp://images.google.pl/imageshttp://www.free-stuff.me.uk/freehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki
1. encoding – transformation of sensory data into a
form of mental representation
2. storage – keeping encoded information in memory
3. retrieval – pulling out or using information stored in memory
Recall = a task to produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory (eg. fill-in-the-blanks tests), based on expressive knowledge
explicit tasks –requiring a conscious recollection – we are to recall or recognize words, facts, or pictures from a particular prior set of items
implicit tasks – performance is assisted by previous experiences which we do not consciously try to recollect, eg. word-completion tasks (m_m_ _ _)
we perform better when the word has been presented recently (memory priming), even amnesiacs perform well on cued-recall tasks
A H M G
E L W C
K A N M
O V P Z
(run a demo on Backward Masking-Consciousness)
Is the word (TABLE) written in capital letters?
Does the word (CAT) rhyme with MAT?
Is the word (DAFFODIL) a type of plant?
(Baddely & Hitch, 1974; Baddeley, 1992)
activated portion of long-term memory and moves the activated elements into and out of temporary memory storage
1. Phonological store
2. Articulatory control process
ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL
The processes are sequential, but also interactive and interdependent.
for brief storage and
1 Z L Q N K S J
2 P B V C T D G
1 BUS CLOCK SPOON FISH MOUSE
2 MAN CLOCK MAP CAT CAP
I want my MTV
while you repeat the word “THE”
competing information causes forgetting;
the ‘Brown – Peterson’ paradigm
Two kinds of interference (inhibition):
The Brown – Peterson task may actually involve both types of
Interference vs decay
Moreover, interference affects long-term memory as well.
The total-time hypothesis: the amount of learning depends on the amount of time spent rehearsing rather than on how the time is divided into trials. The time, however, should actually be used for rehearsing that enhances recall.
Maintenance rehearsal - repetitious rehearsal; temporarily maintains information in STM;
Elaborative rehearsal– more meaningful and more memorable- necessary to transfer info into LTM- one way to elaborate information is to organize it
ways of organizing
memories – subjective
organization in free
recall, e.g. Bousfield
BIsia, DAktyl, KACper, BAmbi, CHmurka)
Memory retrieval is both
(Neisser & Harsch, 1993)
(Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989)