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MEIOSIS 11-4. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm. Making gametes…. Interest Grabber. 1. How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis?

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Meiosis 11 4 l.jpg

MEIOSIS11-4

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm

Making gametes…


Slide2 l.jpg

Interest Grabber

1. How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis?

2. If a sperm containing 46 chromosomes fused with an egg containing 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would the resulting fertilized egg contain? Do you think this would create any problems in the developing embryo?

3. In order to produce a fertilized egg with the appropriate number of chromosomes (46), how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have?

46 chromosomes

46 + 46 = 92; a developing embryo would not survive if it contained 92 chromosomes.

Sperm and egg should each have 23 chromosomes.


Remember from chapter 1 characteristics of living things all living things l.jpg

Remember from Chapter 1:CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGSALL LIVING THINGS __________

REPRODUCE

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htmFamily http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp


Asexual reproduction l.jpg

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookmito.html

BINARY FISSION

Bacteria reproduce using

__________________________________

Budding & regeneration are used by plants and animals to reproduce asexually (mitosis)

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c7.13.2.hydra.jpg

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm


Binary fission mitosis l.jpg

BINARY FISSION & MITOSIS

identical

Produces cells that are __________ copies of parent cell


Advantages of asexual reproduction l.jpg

ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Can make offspring faster

Don’t need a partner

http://www.mrgrow.com/images/cutting.jpg


Disvantages of asexual reproduction l.jpg

DISVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

ALL ALIKE

Species CAN’T change and adapt

One disease can wipe out whole population

http://www.mrgrow.com/images/cutting.jpg


Sexual reproduction l.jpg

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp

Combines genetic material

from 2 parents (sperm & egg)

so offspring are

genetically __________

from parents

DIFFERENT


Advantages of sexual reproduction l.jpg

ADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Allows for variation in population

Individuals can be different

Provides foundation for EVOLUTION

Allow species adapt to

changes in

their environment

http://naturalsciences.sdsu.edu/classes/lab8/spindex.html


Slide10 l.jpg

http://www.angelbabygifts.com/

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

EGG

+

SPERM

If egg and sperm had same number of

chromosomes as other body cells . . .

baby would have too many chromosomes!

http://www.acmecompany.com/stock_thumbnails/13217.forty-six_chromosomes.jpg


Meiosis is the way l.jpg

MEIOSIS is the way…

to make cells with ½ the number of chromosomes

for sexual

reproduction

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


Video 1 l.jpg

Video 1

Video 1

Meiosis Overview

Click the image to play the video segment 11A.


Diploid haploid l.jpg

DIPLOID & HAPLOID

DIPLOID

2n

Most cells have 2 copies of each chromosome = ______________

(one from mom; one from dad)

All BODY (___________) cells are diploid

HOMOLOGOUSCHROMOSOMES

= SOMATIC


Diploid haploid14 l.jpg

DIPLOID & HAPLOID

HAPLOID

1n

Some cells have only one copy of each chromosome = _____________

All sperm and egg cells

are haploid


Mitosis l.jpg

MITOSIS

2

identical

  • Makes ___ cells genetically _________ to parent cell & to each other

  • Makes ___ cells

  • Makes __________

  • Used by organisms to: increase size of organism, repair injuries, replace worn out cells

2n

SOMATIC (body)

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


Meiosis l.jpg

MEIOSIS

4

  • Makes ____ cells genetically different from parent cell & from each other

  • Makes _____ cells

  • Makes ______________

  • Used for ____________

1n

Gametes (sperm & eggs)

sexual reproduction

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


What makes meiosis different l.jpg

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

  • SYNAPSIS & CROSSING OVER (PROPHASE I)

  • SEGREGATION &

    INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT (ANAPHASE I)

    3. Skip INTERPHASE II (NO S)

    CELL DIVIDES TWICE, BUT…

    ONLY COPIES DNA ONCE


What makes meiosis different18 l.jpg

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

  • Homologous chromosomes pair up during ________________

    = ______________

PROPHASE I

SYNAPSIS

This group of FOUR (4)

chromatids is called a

_________________

TETRAD

Images modified from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif


What makes meiosis different19 l.jpg

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT?

CROSSING OVER

1. Exchange of DNA betweenhomologous pairs = _____________during PROPHASE I

Allows shuffling of genetic material

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif


Video 5 l.jpg

Video 5

Video 5

Crossing Over

SEE CROSSING OVERANIMATION

Click the image to play the video segment. 11E


Homologous chromosomes l.jpg

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES

Image modified by Riedell

  • SAME SIZE

  • SAME SHAPE

  • CARRY GENES for the SAME TRAITS

  • BUT ______________!

    (Don’t have to have the SAME CHOICES)

NOT IDENTICAL

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm


Crossing over l.jpg

Image modified by Riedell

CROSSING OVER

  • Allows for_________________

    in different combinations

  • After crossing over, chromatid arms are________________ anymore

rearranging of DNA

NOT IDENTICAL

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm


What makes meiosis different23 l.jpg

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

2.Separation during ANAPHASE I

SEGREGATION &

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

Separates gene choices and allows shuffling of genetic material


Video 4 l.jpg

Video 4

Video 4

Segregation of Chromosomes

Click the image to play the video segment 11D.


Segregation anaphase i l.jpg

SEGREGATION(Anaphase I)


Segregation crossing over together make even more combinations l.jpg

SEGREGATION & CROSSING OVERtogether make even more combinations

See ananimation

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


Independent assortment l.jpg

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c13x9independent-assortment.jpg


Independent assortment at anaphase i l.jpg

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENTat ANAPHASE I

Lots of different combinations are possible!

This is why you don’t look exactly like your brothers and sisters even

though you share the same parents!


Slide29 l.jpg

http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/anm/mimov.gi


What makes meiosis different30 l.jpg

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

Crossing over Segregation Independent assortment

are ALL ways MEIOSIS results in =______________________________

So daughter cells are ______________

from parents and from each other

GENETIC RECOMBINATION

different


What makes meiosis different31 l.jpg

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

3. Skip INTERPHASE II (No S)

CELL DIVIDES TWICE, BUT …

ONLY COPIES ITS DNA ONCE

MITOSIS:

P

M

A

C

G1

T

S

G2

MEIOSIS:

( I )

G1

A

T

C

S

G2

P

M

( II )

A

P

M

T

C


Video 2 l.jpg

Video 2

Video 2

Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1 & Part 2

Click the image to play the video segment 11B. & C


Slide33 l.jpg

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I


Slide34 l.jpg

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

Meiosis I


Slide35 l.jpg

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

Meiosis I


Slide36 l.jpg

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I


Slide37 l.jpg

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I


Slide38 l.jpg

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.


Slide39 l.jpg

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.


Slide40 l.jpg

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.


Slide41 l.jpg

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.


Slide42 l.jpg

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.


Mitosis vs meiosis interphase interphase i l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSISINTERPHASE INTERPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • DNA is spread out as chromatin

  • Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus visible

  • DNA is copied during S phase

  • Makes stuff new cell needs in G2

SAME AS

MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis prophase prophase i l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

DNA scrunches into chromosomes

Nuclear membrane/

nucleolus disappear

Centrioles/spindle fibers appear

DNA scrunches into chromosomesNuclear membrane/ nucleolus disappear Centrioles/spindle fibers appear

Homologous pairs match up


Mitosis vs meiosis metaphase metaphase i l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • Chromosomes line up in middle

Chromosomes line up in middle

with homologous partner


Mitosis vs meiosis anaphase anaphase i l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

APART:

Chromatids split

APART:

Chromatids stay togetherHomologous pairs split


Mitosis vs meiosis telophase telophase i l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

See TWO nuclei

Nuclear membrane/

nucleolus return

DNA spreads out as chromatin

Spindle/centrioles disappear

SAME AS MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis cytokinesis cytokinesis i l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Cytoplasm splits

into 2 cells

SAME AS

MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis interphase ii l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS INTERPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • DNA is spread out as chromatin

  • Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus visible

  • DNA is copied during S phase

SKIP

INTERPHASE II

DNA NOT COPIED


Mitosis vs meiosis prophase prophase ii l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • DNA scrunches into chromosomes

  • Nuclear membrane/nucleolus disappear

  • Centrioles/ spindle fibers appear

SAME AS MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis metaphase metaphase ii l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • Chromosomes line up in middle

SAME AS MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis anaphase anaphase ii l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Chromatids split and move apart

SAME AS MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis telophase telophase ii l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Two nuclei

Nuclear membrane/nucleolus returns

Centrioles/spindle fibersdisappear

DNA spreads out as

chromatin

SAME AS MITOSIS


Mitosis vs meiosis cytokinesis cytokinesis ii l.jpg

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Cytoplasm splits

SAME AS MITOSIS

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html


Ways meiosis is different l.jpg

Ways Meiosis is different?

  • Homologous pairs match up & trade DNA (SYNAPSIS & CROSSING OVER) in PROPHASE I

  • SEGREGATION

    • &INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT in Anaphase I

    • create genetic recombination

  • Skipping INTERPHASE II-

  • (Dividing TWICE but copying DNA once)

  • produces 1n cells


Making sperm eggs l.jpg

MAKING SPERM & EGGS


Slide57 l.jpg

SPERMATOGENESIS

___________________= MAKING MATURE SPERM

Mature & grow flagella


Slide58 l.jpg

Sperm provides DNA

All the starting nutrients,

organelles, molecule building blocks,

etc. have to come from the egg.


Slide59 l.jpg

OOGENESIS

__________________ =

MAKING a MATURE EGG

Produces:

1 “good” egg

3

POLAR BODIES

CYTOPLASM DIVIDES UNEVENLY


Slide60 l.jpg

WHY MAKE ONLY ONE “GOOD” EGG?

Sperm donates mostly DNA

Most of the cell parts and nutrients needed for baby come from EGG!

http://bestweekever.blogs.com/photos/uncategorized/imagemain_sperm_egg1_1.gif


Slide61 l.jpg

“Self digest”

Using

________________

POLAR BODIES DEGENERATE (DIE)

LYSOSOMES

APOPTOSIS

= __________________

“cell suicide” for good of organism


South dakota core science standards l.jpg

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.

Cell life cycles

Examples: somatic cells (mitosis), germ cells (meiosis)

Storage and transfer of genetic information


South dakota core science standards63 l.jpg

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 2: Analyze various patterns and

products of natural and induced biological

change.

9-12.L.2.2. Students are able to describe how genetic recombination, mutations, and natural selection lead to adaptations, evolution, extinction, or the emergence of new species.


Core high school life science performance descriptors l.jpg

Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors


South dakota advanced science standards l.jpg

SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:

Indicator 2: Analyze various patterns and products of natural and induced biological change.

9-12.L.2.1A. Students are able to predict the results of complex inheritance patterns involving multiple alleles and genes. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples: human skin color, polygenic inheritancerelate crossing over to genetic variation.


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