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Leadership. Chapter 1 - Introduction. Northouse, 4 th edition. Overview. Conceptualizing Leadership Leadership Definition Components of the Definition Followers & Leadership. The focus of group processes A personality perspective An act or behavior

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leadership

Leadership

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Northouse, 4th edition

overview

Overview

Conceptualizing Leadership

Leadership Definition

Components of the Definition

Followers & Leadership

conceptualizing leadership
The focus of group processes

A personality perspective

An act or behavior

In terms of the power relationship between leaders & followers

An instrument of goal achievement

A skills perspective

Conceptualizing Leadership

Some definitions view leadership as:

leadership defined
Leadership Defined

Leadership

is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.

components central to the phenomenon of leadership
Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership

Leadership

  • Is a process
  • Involves influence
  • Occurs within a group context
  • Involves goal attainment

Leaders

  • Are not above followers
  • Are not better than followers
  • Rather, an interactive relationship with followers
leadership described

LEADERSHIPDESCRIBED

Trait vs. Process Leadership

Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership

Leadership & Power

Leadership & Coercion

Leadership & Management

trait vs process leadership
Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders.

Resides in select people

Restricted to those with inborn talent

Trait vs. Process Leadership

Trait definition of leadership:

LEADER

  • Height
  • Intelligence
  • Extroversion
  • Fluency
  • Other Traits

Leadership

FOLLOWERS

trait vs process leadership1
Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982).

Observed in leadership behaviors

Can be learned

Trait vs. Process Leadership

The process definition of Leadership:

LEADER

Leadership

(Interaction)

FOLLOWERS

assigned vs emergent leadership
Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization

Team leaders

Plant managers

Department heads

Directors

An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title

Emerges over time through communication behaviors

Verbal involvement

Being informed

Seek other’s opinions

Being firm but not rigid

Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership

Assigned

Emergent

leadership power
The capacity or potential to influence.

Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes & actions

Referent

Expert

Legitimate

Reward

Coercive

Leadership & Power

Bases of Social Power

French & Raven (1959)

Power

Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.

leadership power2
REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification and liking for the leader.

ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent power.

EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence.

ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country has expert power.

LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority.

ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits legitimate power

Five Bases of Power

Leadership & Power
leadership power3
REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others.

ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard is using reward power.

COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others.

ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to practice is using coercive power.

Five Bases of Power

Leadership & Power
leadership power4
Power is influence derived from being seen as likable & knowledgeable

Referent

Expert

Power derived from office or rank in an organization

Legitimate

Reward

Coercive

Leadership & Power

Types and Bases of Power

Position Power

Personal Power

leadership coercion
Use of force to effect change

Influencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environment

Use of threats, punishments, & negative rewards

Adolf Hitler

Jim Jones

David Koresh

Leadership & Coercion

Coercion Involves

Examples of Coercive Leaders

Power & restraint used to force followers to

engage in extreme

behavior

leadership management kotter 1990
Leadership & Management Kotter (1990)

Management

Activities

Leadership

Activities

“Produces order

and consistency”

“Produces change

and movement”

  • Planning & Budgeting
  • Organizing & Staffing
  • Controlling & Problem Solving
  • Establishing direction
  • Aligning people
  • Motivating / Inspiring

Major activities of management & leadership

are played out differently; BUT, both are essential

for an organization to prosper.

leadership management kotter 19901
Leadership & Management Kotter (1990)

Major activities of management and leadership

are played out differently;

BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.

leadership management zaleznik 1977
Leadership & ManagementZaleznik (1977)

Managers

Unidirectional Authority

Leaders

Multidirectional Influence

  • Are emotionally active
  • & involved
  • Are reactive
  • Shape ideas over
  • responding to them
  • Prefer to work with
  • people on problem
  • solving
  • Act to expand
  • available options
  • Low emotional
  • involvement
  • Change the way people
  • think about what is
  • possible
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