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Introduction to UML. Majid Ali Khan Spring 2005. Acknowledgements. Slides material are taken from different sources including: Prashanth Aedunuthula UML presentation, Fall 2004 Lecture slides from Software Engineering course at UC Berkeley (Professor Necula – Fall 2004)

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Introduction to uml

Introduction to UML

Majid Ali Khan

Spring 2005


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • Slides material are taken from different sources including:

    • Prashanth Aedunuthula UML presentation, Fall 2004

    • Lecture slides from Software Engineering course at UC Berkeley (Professor Necula – Fall 2004)

    • Lecture slides from a course on web at:

      • www.sts.tu-harburg.de/ teaching/ws-98.99/OOA+D/3-0-UML.pdf


Overview
Overview

  • What is Modeling?

  • What is UML?

  • A brief history of UML

  • Understanding the basics of UML

  • UML diagrams

  • UML Modeling tools


Modeling
Modeling

  • Describing a system at a high level of abstraction

    • A model of the system

    • Used for requirements and specifications

  • Is it necessary to model software systems?



What is uml
What is UML?

  • UML stands for “Unified Modeling Language”

  • It is a industry-standard graphical language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems

  • The UML uses mostly graphical notations to express the OO analysis and design of software projects. 

  • Simplifies the complex process of software design


Why uml for modeling
Why UML for Modeling

  • Use graphical notation to communicate more clearly than natural language (imprecise) and code(too detailed).

  • Help acquire an overall view of a system.

  • UML is not dependent on any one language or technology.

  • UML moves us from fragmentationto standardization.



Types of uml diagrams
Types of UML Diagrams

  • Use Case Diagram

  • Class Diagram

  • Sequence Diagram

  • Collaboration Diagram

  • State Diagram

    This is only a subset of diagrams … but are most widely used


Use case diagram
Use Case Diagram

  • Used for describing a set of user scenarios

  • Mainly used for capturing user requirements

  • Work like a contract between end user and software developers


Use Case Diagram (core components)

Actors:A role that a user plays with respect to the system,including human users and other systems. e.g.,inanimate physical objects (e.g. robot); an external system that needs some information from the current system.

Use case:A set of scenarios that describing an interaction between a user and a system, including alternatives.

System boundary: rectangle diagram representing the boundary between the actors and the system.


Use case diagram core relationship
Use Case Diagram(core relationship)

Association: communication between an actor and a use case; Represented by a solid line.

Generalization: relationship between one general use case and a special use case (used for defining special alternatives)

Represented by a line with a triangular arrow head toward the parent use case.


Use case diagram core relationship1
Use Case Diagram(core relationship)

Include: a dotted line labeled <<include>> beginning at base use case and ending with an arrows pointing to the include use case. The include relationship occurs when a chunk of behavior is similar across more than one use case. Use “include” in stead of copying the description of that behavior.

<<include>>

Extend: a dotted line labeled <<extend>> with an arrow toward the base case.The extending use case may add behavior to the base use case. The base class declares “extension points”.

<<extend>>


Use case diagrams
Use Case Diagrams

Use Case

Boundary

Actor

Library System

Borrow

Employee

Client

Order Title

Fine Remittance

Supervisor

  •  A generalized description of how a system will be used. 

  •  Provides an overview of the intended functionality of the system


Use case diagrams cont
Use Case Diagrams(cont.)

(TogetherSoft, Inc)


Use case diagrams cont1
Use Case Diagrams(cont.)

  • Pay Bill is a parent use case and Bill Insurance is the child use case. (generalization)

  • Both Make Appointment and Request Medication include Check Patient Record as a subtask.(include)

  • The extension point is written inside the base case

  • Pay bill; the extending class Defer payment adds the behavior of this extension point. (extend)


Class diagram
Class diagram

  • Used for describing structure and behavior in the use cases

  • Provide a conceptual model of the system in terms of entities and their relationships

  • Used for requirement capture, end-user interaction

  • Detailed class diagrams are used for developers


Class representation
Class representation

  • Each class is represented by a rectangle subdivided into three compartments

    • Name

    • Attributes

    • Operations

  • Modifiers are used to indicate visibility of attributes and operations.

    • ‘+’ is used to denote Public visibility (everyone)

    • ‘#’ is used to denote Protected visibility (friends and derived)

    • ‘-’ is used to denote Private visibility (no one)

  • By default, attributes are hidden and operations are visible.


An example of class

Name

Account_Name

- Customer_Name

- Balance

Attributes

+addFunds( )

+withDraw( )

+transfer( )

Operations

An example of Class


Oo relationships
OO Relationships

  • There are two kinds of Relationships

    • Generalization (parent-child relationship)

    • Association (student enrolls in course)

  • Associations can be further classified as

    • Aggregation

    • Composition


OO Relationships:Generalization

Supertype

Example:

Customer

Regular

Customer

Loyalty

Customer

Subtype2

Subtype1

or:

Customer

- Generalization expresses a parent/child relationship among related classes.

- Used for abstracting details in several layers

Regular

Customer

Loyalty

Customer


Oo relationships association
OO Relationships: Association

  • Represent relationship between instances of classes

    • Student enrolls in a course

    • Courses have students

    • Courses have exams

    • Etc.

  • Association has two ends

    • Role names (e.g. enrolls)

    • Multiplicity (e.g. One course can have many students)

    • Navigability (unidirectional, bidirectional)


Association multiplicity and roles
Association: Multiplicity and Roles

student

1

*

University

Person

0..1

*

teacher

employer

Role

Multiplicity

Symbol Meaning

1 One and only one

0..1 Zero or one

M..N From M to N (natural language)

* From zero to any positive integer

0..* From zero to any positive integer

1..* From one to any positive integer

Role

“A given university groups many people; some act as students, others as teachers. A given student belongs to a single university; a given teacher may or may not be working for the university at a particular time.”


Class diagram1
Class Diagram

class

Name

Order

Multiplicity: mandatory

-dateReceived

Attributes

*

Customer

-isPrepaid

1

-number :String

-name

-price : Money

-address

Association

+dispatch()

Operations

+creditRating() : String()

+close()

1

Generalization

{if Order.customer.creditRating is

"poor", then Order.isPrepaid must

be true }

Corporate Customer

Personal Customer

-contactName

-creditCard#

Constraint

(inside braces{}}

-creditRating

-creditLimit

Multiplicity:

Many value

+remind()

+billForMonth(Integer)

0..1

Multiplicity: optional

*

Employee

*

OrderLine

-quantity: Integer

1

*

Product

-price: Money

-isSatisfied: Boolean

[from UML Distilled Third Edition]


Association model to implementation
Association: Model to Implementation

*

4

Course

Student

Class Student {

Course enrolls[4];

}

Class Course {

Student have[];

}

has

enrolls


Automobile

Transmission

Engine

OO Relationships:Composition

Composition: expresses a relationship among instances

of related classes. It is a specific kind of Whole-Partrelationship.

It expresses a relationship where an instance of the Whole-class has the responsibility to create and initialize instances of each Part-class. It may also be used to express a relationship where instancesof the Part-classes have privileged access or visibility tocertain attributes and/or behaviors defined by theWhole-class. Composition should also be used to express relationship whereinstances of the Whole-class have exclusive access to and control of instances of the Part-classes.

Composition should be used to express a relationship wherethe behavior of Part instances is undefined without beingrelated to an instance of the Whole. And, conversely, the

behavior of the Whole is ill-defined or incomplete if one or more of the Part instances are undefined.

Whole Class

Class W

ClassP2

ClassP1

Part Classes

Example

[From Dr.David A. Workman]


Oo relationships aggregation
OO Relationships: Aggregation

Container Class

ClassC

Aggregation: expresses a relationship among instances

of related classes. It is a specific kind of Container-Containeerelationship.

It expresses a relationship where an instance of the Container-class has the responsibility to hold and maintain instances of each Containee-class that have been createdoutside the auspices of the Container-class. Aggregation should be used to express a more informalrelationship than composition expresses. That is, it is anappropriate relationship where the Container and its Containeescan be manipulated independently.

Aggregation is appropriate when Container and Containees have no special access privileges to each other.

AGGREGATION

Class E2

Class E1

Containee Classes

Example

Bag

Milk

Apples

[From Dr.David A. Workman]


Aggregation vs composition
Aggregation vs. Composition

  • Composition is really a strong form of aggregation

    • components have only one owner

    • components cannot exist independent of their owner

    • components live or die with their owner

    • e.g. Each car has an engine that can not be shared with other cars.

  • Aggregations may form "part of" the aggregate, but may not be essential to it. They may also exist independent of the aggregate.

  • e.g. Apples may exist independent of the bag.


Good practice crc card
Good Practice: CRC Card

(Class Responsibility Collaborator)

Benefits: It is easy to describe how classes work by moving cards around; allows to quickly consider alternatives.

Class

Reservations

  • Collaborators

  • Catalog

  • User session

  • Responsibility

  • Keep list of reserved titles

  • Handle reservation


Sequence diagram make a phone call
Sequence Diagram(make a phone call)

Caller

Phone

Recipient

Picks up

Dial tone

Dial

Ring notification

Ring

Picks up

Hello


Sequence diagram object interaction

A

B

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Transmission delayed

[condition] remove()

*[for each] remove()

Self-Call

Sequence Diagram:Object interaction

Self-Call: A message that an

Object sends to itself.

Condition: indicates when a message is sent. The message is sent only if the condition is true.

Condition

Iteration


Sequence diagrams object life spans

A

Create

B

X

Return

Deletion

Lifeline

Sequence Diagrams – Object Life Spans

  • Creation

    • Create message

    • Object life starts at that point

  • Activation

    • Symbolized by rectangular stripes

    • Place on the lifeline where object is activated.

    • Rectangle also denotes when object is deactivated.

  • Deletion

    • Placing an ‘X’ on lifeline

    • Object’s life ends at that point

Activation bar


Sequence diagram
Sequence Diagram

Message

  • Sequence diagrams demonstrate the behavior of objects in a use case

  • by describing the objects and the messages they pass.

  • The horizontal dimension shows the objects participating in the interaction.

  • The vertical arrangement of messages indicates their order.

  • The labels may contain the seq. # to indicate concurrency.


Interaction diagrams collaboration diagrams
Interaction Diagrams: Collaboration diagrams

start

6: remove reservation

3 : [not available] reserve title

User

Reservations

5: title available

6 : borrow title

1: look up

2: title data

4 : title returned

Catalog

5 : hold title

  • Shows the relationship between objects and the order of messages passed between them. 

  • between them.

  • The objects are listed as rectangles and arrows indicate the messages being passed

  • The numbers next to the messages are called sequence numbers. They show the sequence

  • of the messages as they are passed between the objects. 

  • convey the same information as sequence diagrams, but focus on object roles instead of the

  • time sequence.


State diagrams billing example
State Diagrams(Billing Example)

State Diagrams show the sequences of states an object goes through during its life cycle in response to stimuli, together with its responses and actions; an abstraction of all possible behaviors.

End

Start

Unpaid

Paid

Invoice created

paying

Invoice destroying


State diagrams traffic light example
State Diagrams(Traffic light example)

Start

Traffic Light

State

Red

Transition

Yellow timer expires

Yellow

Car trips sensor

Green timer expires

Green

Event


Uml modeling tools
UML Modeling Tools

  • Rational Rose (www.rational.com) by IBM

  • TogetherSoft Control Center, Borland (http://www.borland.com/together/index.html)

  • ArgoUML (free software)(http://argouml.tigris.org/ )

    OpenSource; written in java

  • Others (http://www.objectsbydesign.com/tools/umltools_byCompany.html )


Reference
Reference

1. UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling LanguageMartin Fowler, Kendall Scott

2. IBM Rational

http://www-306.ibm.com/software/rational/uml/

3. Practical UML --- A Hands-On Introduction for Developers

http://www.togethersoft.com/services/practical_guides/umlonlinecourse/

4.Software Engineering Principles and Practice. Second Edition; Hans van Vliet.

5. http://www-inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs169/


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