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Sponsored by IEEE Singapore SMC, R&A, and Control Chapters Organized and invited by Professor Sam Ge, NUS Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Machinery, Human Biofunctions, and BCW Agents F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for Research Moncrief-O’Donnell Endowed Chair

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Sponsored by

IEEE Singapore SMC, R&A, and Control Chapters

Organized and invited by Professor Sam Ge, NUS

Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Machinery, Human Biofunctions, and BCW Agents

F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for Research

Moncrief-O’Donnell Endowed Chair

Head, Controls, Sensors, MEMS Group

Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI)The University of Texas at Arlington


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F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for Research

Moncrief-O’Donnell Endowed Chair

Head, Controls, Sensors, MEMS Group

Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI)The University of Texas at Arlington

Discrete Event Control & Decision-Making

http://ARRI.uta.edu/acs


Discrete event control l.jpg

Objective:

Develop new DE control algorithms for decision-making, supervision, & resource assignment WITH PROOFS

Apply to manufacturing workcell control, battlefield C&C systems, & internetworked systems

  • Patent on Discrete Event Supervisory Controller

  • New DE Control Algorithms based on Matrices

  • Complete Dynamic Description for DE Systems

  • Formal Deadlock Avoidance Techniques

  • Implemented on Intelligent Robotic Workcell

  • Internet- Remote Site Control and Monitoring

  • USA/Mexico Collaboration

  • Exploring Applications to Battlefield Systems

Discrete Event Control

$75K in ARO Funding for Networked Robot Workcell Control

$80K in NSF Funding for research and USA/Mexico Network

Intelligent Robot Workcell

Dr. Jose Mireles- co-PI

Man/Machine User Interface

USA/Mexico Internetworked Control


Matrix formulation definition l.jpg

Matrix Formulation: Definition

Based on Manufacturing Bill of Materials

DE Model State Equation:

Where multiply = AND & addition = OR

where is the task or state logic

is the job sequencing matrix (Steward)

is the resource requirements matrix (Kusiak)

is the input matrix

is the conflict resolution matrix

Job Start Equation:

Resource Release Equation:

Product Output Equation:


Meaning of matrices l.jpg

Resources required

Prerequisite jobs

Meaning of Matrices

Next

job

Next

job

Fr

Fv

Steward’s Task Sequencing Matrix

Kusiak’s Resource Requirements Matrix

Bill of Materials (BOM)

Conditions fulfilled

Conditions fulfilled

Release

resource

Next

job

Sr

Sv


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EXAMPLE

ARRI Intelligent Material Handling (IMH) Cell

3 robots, 3 conveyors, two part paths



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Construct Job Sequencing Matrix Fv

Part A job 1

Part B job 1

Part A job 2

Part B job 2

Part A job 3

Part B job 3

Used by Steward in

Manufacturing

Task Sequencing

Part A job 1

Part A job 2

Part A job 3

Prerequisite

jobs

Next

jobs

Part B job 1

Part B job 2

Part B job 3

Contains same information

as the Bill of Materials

(BOM)


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Construct Resource Requirements Matrix Fr

Conveyor 1

Conveyor 3

Fixture 1

Robot 1- IBM

Robot 2- Puma

Robot 3- Adept

Used by Kusiak in

Manufacturing

Resource Assignment

Part A job 1

Part A job 2

Part A job 3

Contains information

about factory resources

Prerequisite

resources

Part B job 1

Part B job 2

Part B job 3

Next

jobs


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R2

J5

R3

J3

More About Fv

J5

J1 J3 J4

J4

J2

J5

J6

Two 1’s in same row = Assembly

J2

DECISION

NEEDED!

J1

J6

Two 1’s in same col. = Routing (Job Shop)

More About Fr

R1 R2 R3

J2

J5

J6

Two 1’s in same row

= Job needs multiple res.

J2

DECISION

NEEDED!

R1

Two 1’s in same col.

= Shared Resource

J6


Controller based on matrix formulation l.jpg

Controller based on Matrix Formulation

Resource allocation, task planning,

task decomposition, Bill of Materials

Dispatching

rules

Matrix Formulation

Discrete Event Controller

External Events

Start jobs

Start resource release

Task complete

Workcell

External events present

Jobs completed

Resources released

Tasks completed


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Advantages of the Matrix Formulation

  • Formal rigorous framework

  • Complete DE dynamical description

  • Relation to known Manufacturing notions

  • Formal relation to other tools- Petri Nets, MAX-Plus

  • Easy to design, change, debug, and test

  • Formal deadlock analysis technique

  • Easy to apply any conflict resolution (dispatching) strategy

  • Optimization of resources

  • Easy to implement in any platform (MATLAB, LabVIEW, C, C++, visual basic, or any other)


Relation to petri nets l.jpg

Jobs complete

Resources available

Relation to Petri Nets

Trans.

Trans.

Fr

Fv

Transition

Transition

Release

resource

Next

jobs

Sr

Sv


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Example

r1

t1

p1

t2

pinA

p2

t3

poutA

r2

pinB

t4

t5

t6

poutB

p3

p4

r3

p1 p2 p3 p4

pinA pinB

r1 r2 r3

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

p1 p2 p3 p4

poutA poutB

r1 r2 r3

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6


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r1

t1

p1

t2

pinA

p2

t3

poutA

r2

pinB

t4

t5

t6

poutB

p3

p4

r3

OR/AND Algebra-Locating transitions firing from current marking

Fv

Fr

r

Fu

u

v

= , so x =

i.e. fire t2 and t4

x =


Complete de dynamic formulation l.jpg

Activity Completion Matrix F:

Activity Start Matrix S:

Complete DE Dynamic Formulation

PN Incidence Matrix:

PN marking transition equation:

Allowable marking vector:


Petri net marking transition equation need to add job duration times l.jpg
Petri Net Marking Transition Equation--need to add Job Duration Times

PN Marking Vector

Split transition equation in two steps

Add tokens

Subtract tokens when job complete

Add Time Duration Vector

Corresponds to Timed Places


Allows direct simulations e g matlab l.jpg

Jobs completed Duration Times

by Robot 1

Robot 1

busy or idle

c.f. DE version

of ODE23

Allows Direct Simulations- e.g. MATLAB


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Conflict Resolution for Shared Resources Duration Times

r1

p1

t1

t2

pinA

p2

t3

poutA

Which one to fire?

r2

pinB

t4

t5

t6

poutB

p3

p4

r3

Fr

Fv

r

Fu

u

v

Shared Resource- Two entries in same column

But gives negative

marking!

Cannot fire both.

= , so x =


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Conflict resolution, add extra CR input and new matrix Duration TimesFuc:

r1

p1

t1

t2

pinA

p2

t3

poutA

r2

r2

p3

pinB

t4

t5

t6

poutB

p4

r3

Fr

Fv

r

Fu

Fuc

u

r2

v

= , so x =

Now only t5 fires


Application intelligent material handling l.jpg

Application- Intelligent Material Handling Duration Times

Machine 1

Adept

Puma

Machine 2

CRS

12 Sensors!!


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ARRI Intelligent Material Handling (IMH) Cell Duration Times

3 robots, 3 conveyors, two part paths


Layout of the imh cell24 l.jpg

Layout of the IMH Cell Duration Times


Multipart reentrant flow line l.jpg
Multipart Reentrant Flow Duration TimesLine

c.f. Kumar


Petri net flow chart l.jpg

Petri Net flow chart Duration Times


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c.f. Saridis Duration Times

Jim Albus



Labview controller s interface l.jpg

Resources Duration Times

LabVIEW Controller's interface:

Fr

Fv


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R1u1 Duration Times

R1u2

R1u3

R1u4

R2u1

R2u2

R2u3

R3u1

R3u2

Discrete events

Results of LabVIEW Implementation on Actual Workcell

Compare with MATLAB simulation!

We can now simulate a DE controller and then implement it,

Exactly as for continuous state controllers!!


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U.S.-Mexico shared research Duration Times

DE control via internet

Texas

Using Matrix DEC in LabVIEW


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