Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates
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Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System: 2008 Estimates. Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group September, 2008. Brief History of Non-subscription in Texas.

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Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System: 2008 Estimates

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Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System: 2008 Estimates

Texas Department of Insurance

Workers’ Compensation

Research and Evaluation Group

September, 2008


Brief history of non subscription in texas

Brief History of Non-subscription in Texas

  • Private sector employers have been allowed the option of whether to purchase workers’ compensation (WC) insurance since 1913.

  • Texas is currently the only state that allows any private-sector employer the option of not purchasing WC insurance or become “non-subscribers” to the state WC system.

  • Several states’ laws have numerical exceptions that allow small private sector employers to be “non-subscribers.”

  • The first study in Texas to estimate the percentage of employers that are “non-subscribers” to the Texas WC system took place in 1993 with follow up studies conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2006, and now 2008.


Presentation overview

Presentation Overview

  • Overall employer non-subscription rates and employee WC coverage rates;

  • Reasons why employers purchase workers’ compensation or become non-subscribers;

  • Satisfaction levels of Texas employers;

  • Texas employers’ experiences with workers’ compensation insurance costs;

  • Benefits provided by non-subscribing employers;

  • Use of arbitration by non-subscribing employers; and

  • Employer knowledge of the 2005 Workers’ Compensation Reforms under HB 7.


Survey sample and administration

Survey Sample and Administration

  • TDI made slight modifications to the survey instrument first developed by the Research and Oversight Council on Workers’ Compensation (ROC)

  • TDI pulled a random probability sample (stratified by industry and employment size) of Texas employers from Texas Workforce Commission (TWC) data

  • TDI and the Public Policy Research Institute (PPRI) at Texas A&M University completed 2,585 interviews with year-round private sector Texas employers during June –August 2008

  • Employer non-subscription estimates have a +/- 2.4% margin of error at the 95% confidence interval


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Overall Non-subscription Estimates


Percentage of texas employers that are non subscribers 1993 2008

Percentage of Texas Employers That Are Non-subscribers, 1993-2008

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, 1993 and 1995 estimates from the Texas Workers’ Compensation Research Center and the Public Policy Research Institute (PPRI) at Texas A&M University; 1996 and 2001 estimates from the Research and Oversight Council on Workers’ Compensation and PPRI; and 2004 - 2008 estimates from the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group and PPRI.


Percentage of texas employees that are employed by non subscribers 1993 2008

Percentage of Texas Employees That Are Employed by Non-subscribers, 1993-2008

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, 1993 and 1995 estimates from the Texas Workers’ Compensation Research Center and the Public Policy Research Institute (PPRI) at Texas A&M University; 1996 and 2001 estimates from the Research and Oversight Council on Workers’ Compensation and PPRI; and 2004 - 2008 estimates from the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group and PPRI.


Percentage of texas employers that are non subscribers by employment size 1993 2008

Percentage of Texas Employers That Are Non-subscribers by Employment Size, 1993-2008

Note: Non-subscription estimates for 1993 were based on different employer size categories than were used in later years so they are not directly comparable.

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, 1993 and 1995 estimates from the Texas Workers’ Compensation Research Center and the Public Policy Research Institute (PPRI) at Texas A&M University; 1996 and 2001 estimates from the Research and Oversight Council on Workers’ Compensation and PPRI; and 2004 -2008 estimates from the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group and PPRI.


Percentage of texas employers that are non subscribers by industry 2004 2008 estimates

Percentage of Texas Employers That Are Non-subscribers by Industry, 2004 - 2008 Estimates

Note: Industry classifications were based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)developed by the governments of the U.S., Canada and Mexico, which replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system previously used in the U.S. As a result of this change in industry classifications, industry non-subscription rates for 2004 - 2008 cannot be compared to previous years.

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Reasons Why Employers Purchase Workers’ Compensation

or Become Non-subscribers


Primary reasons why subscribing employers said they purchase workers compensation coverage

Primary Reasons Why Subscribing Employers Said They Purchase Workers’ Compensation Coverage

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Primary Reasons Why Large Subscribing Employers (500+ Employees) Said They Purchase Workers’ Compensation Coverage

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.

Note: * 46% of employers with 500+ employees say they are participating in a WC Network


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Primary Reasons Why Non-subscribing Employers Said They Did Not Purchase Workers’ Compensation Coverage

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Primary Reasons Why Large Non-subscribing Employers (i.e., 500+ Employees) Said They Did Not Purchase Workers’ Compensation Coverage

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Satisfaction Levels of Subscribing and Non-subscribing Employers


Percentage extremely or somewhat satisfied subscribers vs non subscribers

Percentage “Extremely” or “Somewhat” Satisfied:Subscribers vs. Non-subscribers

  • Overall Satisfaction: Subscribers = 61%

    Non-subscribers = 69%

  • Adequacy/equity of occupational benefits paid to workers:

    Subscribers = 53%

    Non-subscribers = 62%

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Percentage extremely or somewhat satisfied subscribers vs non subscribers1

Percentage “Extremely” or “Somewhat” Satisfied:Subscribers vs. non-subscribers

  • Whether WC or occupational benefits plan is a good value for company:

    Subscribers = 56%

    Non-subscribers = 69%

  • Ability to manage medical and wage replacement costs:

    Subscribers = 50%

    Non-subscribers = 68%

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Overall satisfaction of subscribers and non subscribers by employment size

Overall Satisfaction of Subscribers and Non-subscribers by Employment Size

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Texas Employers’ Experiences with Workers’ Compensation Insurance Costs


Percentage of subscribers that indicated they experienced a premium increase by employment size

Percentage of Subscribers That Indicated They Experienced a Premium Increase by Employment Size

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Percentage of subscribers with 500 employees and premium status from previous year

Percentage of Subscribers with 500+ Employees and Premium Status from Previous Year

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.

Note: 12% of the responding employers indicated that they were certified self-insured or had just recently re-purchased workers’ compensation insurance coverage.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Basic Information Regarding Benefits Provided by Non-subscribers


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Percentage of Non-subscribers That Pay Occupational Benefits and the Percentage of Non-subscriber Workforce Covered by Occupational Benefit Plans, 2001 – 2008 Estimates

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, 1996 and 2001 estimates from the Research and Oversight Council on Workers’ Compensation and the Public Policy Research Institute (PPRI) at Texas A&M University; and 2004 -2008 estimates from the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group and PPR, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Percentage of Non-subscribers that Pay Occupational Benefits and Percentage of the Non-subscriber Workforce Covered by Occupational Benefit Plans, by Employer Size, 2008 Estimates

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

How soon after an employee has been injured must he or she report the injury to be eligible for benefits?

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


How non subscribers finance occupational benefits to injured employees

How Non-subscribers Finance Occupational Benefits to Injured Employees?

Note: Percentages do not total 100 percent since respondents were allowed to select more than one option.

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Medical benefits paid by non subscribers

Medical Benefits Paid by Non-subscribers

  • Of those non-subscribing employers that say they pay occupational injury benefits, 70 percent cover medical costs

  • Of those non-subscribing employers that pay medical benefits:

    • 63 percent said they pay medical benefits for as long as they are medically necessary; and

    • 37 percent cap medical benefits based on the duration of treatment or amount of money spent on medical treatments or both.

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Wage replacement benefits paid by non subscribers

Wage Replacement Benefits Paid by Non-subscribers

  • Of those non-subscribing employers that say they pay occupational injury benefits, 68 percent said they pay wage replacement benefits

  • Approximately 75 percent of non-subscribing employers who pay wage replacement benefit said their injured employees are immediately compensated for lost wages, while 25 percent said there is a waiting period before wage replacement benefits begin

  • Of those non-subscribing employers that pay wage replacement benefits:

    • 57 percent said they pay wage replacement benefits for the entire duration of the injured employee’s lost time; and

    • 43 percent cap wage replacement benefits based on the duration of lost time or amount of money spent on wage replacement benefits or both.

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Use of Arbitration by

Texas Non-subscribers


Use of arbitration by non subscribing employers

Use of Arbitration by Non-subscribing Employers

  • Overall, 14% of current non-subscribers said that they ask their employees to sign an agreement stating that the employee will resolve disputes through arbitration – in 2004 this percentage was 12%;

  • 95% of non-subscribers that use arbitration ask their employees to sign these arbitration agreements pre-injury;

  • 36% said that an employee would not receive medical and/or wage replacement benefits if the employee did not agree to resolve disputes through arbitration – in 2004 this percentage was 38%;

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Who generally serves as the arbiter in these disputes

Who generally serves as the arbiter in these disputes?

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Potential economic impact of the 2005 workers compensation reforms under hb 7

Potential Economic Impact of the 2005 Workers’ Compensation Reforms under HB 7


Employer knowledge about the 2005 workers compensation reforms through hb 7

Employer Knowledge About the 2005 Workers’ Compensation Reforms Through HB 7

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group and PPRI, 2008.


Impact of the 2005 workers compensation reforms on texas employers economic development decisions

Impact of the 2005 Workers’ Compensation Reforms on Texas Employers’ Economic Development Decisions

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group and PPRI, 2008.


Employer participation in the texas workers compensation system 2008 estimates

Other Types of Insurance Coverage Purchased by Texas Employers


Other types of insurance coverage carried by texas employers

Other Types of Insurance Coverage Carried by Texas Employers

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Other types of insurance coverage carried by large texas employers 500 employees

Other Types of Insurance Coverage Carried by Large Texas Employers(500+ Employees)

Source: Survey of Employer Participation in the Texas Workers’ Compensation System, Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group, 2008.


Summary

Summary

  • The percentage of Texas employers that do not have workers’ compensation (WC) insurance in 2008 decreased to 33 percent (the lowest level since 1993). This increase in employer participation is primarily the result of more small and medium-sized employers coming back into the workers’ compensation system.

  • The percentage of Texas employees employed by non-subscribing employers in 2008 increased to 25 percent (the highest level since 1993). This increase is primarily the result of more large employers (i.e., 500+ employees) making the decision to be non-subscribers.

  • The percentage of the largest employers (500+ employees) that are non-subscribers is 26 percent, the highest since 1995.

  • The percentage of the smallest employers (1-4 employees) that are non-subscribers is 40 percent, the lowest since 1993.


Summary continued

Summary, continued

  • All industry categories, with the exception of mining, utilities and construction saw increases in the percentage of employers with workers’ compensation coverage.

  • The primary reasons why subscribing employers decided to purchase WC insurance, included:

    • availability of health care networks,

    • the perception that WC insurance is required by law,

    • concern over lawsuits,

    • ability to self-insure or purchase large deductible policies, and

    • lower WC premiums.

  • The primary reasons why non-subscribing employers decided not to purchase WC insurance, included:

    • high WC premiums,

    • the perception that employers’ have too few employees or few on-the-job injuries to warrant WC insurance,

    • the understanding that WC insurance is not required by law, and

    • the concern over high medical costs in the Texas WC system.


Summary continued1

Summary, continued

  • Fewer subscribing employers experienced an increase in their WC premium since their last policy renewal and approximately 25 percent of large subscribing employers reported a decrease in premium.

  • Employer knowledge of the 2005 legislative reforms in HB 7 has not changed significantly since the 2006 survey. Approximately 60 percent of Texas employers are not at all knowledgeable about HB 7.

  • Approximately 14 percent of Texas employers say that HB 7 reforms had a positive impact on their decision to purchase or maintain workers’ compensation coverage, up from 2 percent in 2006.

  • Approximately 9 percent of Texas employers say that HB 7 reforms had a positive impact on their decision to expand business operations in Texas, up from 2 percent in 2006.


Summary continued2

Summary, continued

  • Overall, satisfaction levels are higher for non-subscribing employers than subscribing employers.

    • The largest differences in satisfaction appeared when asked about whether WC or non-subscriber benefit plan was a good value for the company and whether the employer was satisfied with their ability to manage medical and/or wage replacement costs.

  • Overall satisfaction differences were more prominent for larger employers (500+ employees).

  • A little more than half of non-subscribers reported that they pay occupational benefits for work-related injuries; however the employers that pay these benefits tend to be larger employees who employ approximately 82 percent of the non-subscriber workforce.


Summary continued3

Summary, continued

  • The vast majority of non-subscribers (77 percent) reported that employees must report their injuries within 24 hours or the next business day after the injury occurred in order to be eligible for benefits.

  • Non-subscribers use a variety of funding sources for their occupational benefits plans, including special accounts, supplemental indemnity or excess insurance or group health insurance.

  • Most non-subscribers (almost two-thirds) who pay medical benefits said they pay for those benefits for as long as medically necessary and three-fourths of non-subscribers who pay wage-replacement benefits pay these benefits for the duration of an employee’s lost time.


Summary continued4

Summary, continued

  • Approximately 14% of non-subscribing employers ask their employees to sign arbitration agreements and the vast majority of these agreements (95%) are signed pre-injury.

  • About one-third (36%) non-subscribers that use arbitration agreements said that employees who do not sign the agreements do not receive medical and/or wage replacement benefits.

  • Non-subscribers use a variety of different sources as arbiters, including members of the American Arbitration Association (AAA), company employees or attorneys; however, over a quarter of these non-subscribers surveyed didn’t know who served as arbiters for disputes.


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