Emotion PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Components of Emotion. Physiological: arousal, autonomic nervous systemSubjective, conscious experience of emotion: thoughts and feelingBehavior: expression of emotion. Physiological. Sympathetic Nervous SystemLateralization?Left hemisphere: positive emotionsRight hemisphere: negative emotions.

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1. Emotion The Nature of Emotions Theories of Emotion

2. Components of Emotion Physiological: arousal, autonomic nervous system Subjective, conscious experience of emotion: thoughts and feeling Behavior: expression of emotion

3. Physiological Sympathetic Nervous System Lateralization? Left hemisphere: positive emotions Right hemisphere: negative emotions

4. Arousal & Performance

5. Conscious experience Subjective experience of different emotions Labeling particular emotions Cognitive appraisal: interpreting a situation

6. Theories of Emotion James-Lange theory

7. Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard theory

8. Theories of Emotion Two-factor theory

9. Appraisal Affects Arousal Participants view same video, different audio cues (Speisman et al., 1964) Traumatic (focused on pain), Denial (denied pain, focus on bravery), Intellectualization (focus on tradition and culture), or silent Measured physiological responses (i.e., arousal)

10. Arousal Affects Appraisal Participants injected with epinephrine (stimulant), tranquilizer, or placebo (Schachter & Wheeler, 1962) All watch the same slapstick video, rate (i.e., appraise) for funniness

11. Appraisal and Attribution Schachter & Singer (1962) Participants injected with epinephrine Some told it is epinephrine, some told no effect Then put into a room with an elated person or a grumpy person What were the results?

12. Always work together? LeDoux: Dual pathways from the thalamus One path to amygdala: fast reaction One path to cerebral cortex: appraisal Sometimes operate together, sometimes conflict

13. Expressive Behavior Fundamental emotional patterns: innate emotional reactions Considerable debate about the “basic” emotions Ekman (1992, 1994) performed a series of cross-cultural studies asking people to describe different facial expressions

14. Expressive Behavior Cultural display rules (Ekman et al., 1972) Japanese and American students watch a gory video while being taped (unknowingly) Coding of videos show same number of disgust, sadness, and fear expressions Later, participants videotaped while interviewed Japanese participants showed much fewer expressions while discussing the video

15. Expressive Behaviors http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/index.shtml

16. Expressive Behaviors What makes a “real” smile? The Duchenne smile (Ekman & Friesen, 1978), distinguished from other smiles because it involves contraction of muscles (obicularis oculi, pars lateralis) that raises the cheeks around the eyes (Messinger et al., 1999)

17. Expression & Emotion Facial feedback hypothesis (Adelman & Zajonc, 1989) In one study (Strack et al., 1988), participants watched a funny video Either held pencil in between teeth or lips Participants holding in teeth rated the movie as funnier than the lip-holders

18. Topics Covered Physiological arousal Lateralization, Effects on Performance Subjective experience of emotion Different theories of emotion Appraisal affects arousal, arousal affects appraisal Expressive behaviors Fundamental patterns, emotions across cultures, “basic” emotions Cultural display rules What makes a real smile Facial feedback hypothesis

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