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Developing a Safety Program for the Workplace. Bryan W. Shaw, Ph.D. Agricultural Engineering Department Texas Agricultural Extension Service The Texas A&M System. Why Safety. Why Safety. Reduce Number of Injuries Reduce Costs Associated with Injuries Comply with Regulations. Why Safety.

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Developing a Safety Program for the Workplace

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Developing a safety program for the workplace l.jpg

Developing a Safety Program for the Workplace

Bryan W. Shaw, Ph.D.

Agricultural Engineering Department

Texas Agricultural Extension Service

The Texas A&M System


Why safety l.jpg

Why Safety


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Why Safety

  • Reduce Number of Injuries

  • Reduce Costs Associated with Injuries

  • Comply with Regulations


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Why Safety


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Why Safety

  • Reduce Number of Injuries

  • Reduce Costs Associated with Injuries

  • Comply with Regulations


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Reduce Injury Costs

  • Average cost of injury

    -~$11,000

  • Indirect cost ~ 50 times direct cost

    - Lost time/productivity, low morale

    - Equipment Damage


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Costs by Injury


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Why Safety

  • Reduce Number of Injuries

  • Reduce Costs Associated with Injuries

  • Comply with Regulations


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OSHA Inspections Region VI

  • ~4,200 /year ~1/2 programmed

  • Average cost ~$2,500 – 17,000

  • How often – once every 102 years

  • Landscape ~ 40% of violations were paperwork violations


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Creating a Safety Program


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Creating a Safety Program

  • Management commitment

    - Real commitment

    - Active participation

  • Assignment of Authority

    - Supervisors/foremen provide lead

    - Safety committee


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Developing a Safety Program


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Developing a Safety Program

  • Develop/implement safety policies and work rules

    - Policy should be brief, to the point and define management’s philosophy

    - Clear enforceable work rules

    - Require commitment to comply


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Safety Rules

  • General

    - apply to all employees

  • Job specific safety rules

    - developed specifically for each

    major job activity


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Developing a Safety Program

  • Orientation and Training

    -Orientation ~ familiarize new

    employees with safety policy and

    work rules

    -Provide regular training ~ refresh


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Why Orientation is Critical


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Developing a Safety Program

  • Hazard Abatement

    - Schedule regular imspections

    - Document and correct unsafe conditions

    or practices

    - Encourage reporting of hazards

    - Develop safety procedures for new

    equipment


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Developing a Safety Program

  • Commitment to injured workers

    - Healthy employees ~ productive

    - Let injured workers know that

    their needs are a priority


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Developing a Safety Program

  • Injury statistics and reports

    - Keep records of all injuries

    - Use to evaluate safety needs

    - Use to identify hazards to

    eliminate


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Employee Selection


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Employee Selection

  • Develop Job Application

  • Require all applicants to complete

  • Verify information on application

  • Use available sources to find additional information

  • Complete additional checks if job requires applicant to drive


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Employee Selection

  • Request applicants to submit to physical examination

  • Request applicants to submit to drug tests

  • Verify paperwork complete before offer employment


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Employee Orientation & Training


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Employee Orientation & Training

  • General

    • all employees

  • Job Specific

    • employees that perform specific task


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Employee Orientation & Training

  • Keep records of topics covered

  • Require employees to sign roster

  • Short frequent meetings


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Employee Orientation & Training

  • General ~ All employees

    • Policy and rules

    • Proper lifting

    • Ergonomics


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Employee Orientation & Training

  • General ~ All employees

    • Policy and rules

    • Proper lifting

    • Ergonomics


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Employee Orientation & Training

  • General ~ All employees

    • Policy and rules

    • Proper lifting

    • Ergonomics


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Ergonomics

  • Ergo = work

  • Nomos = work

  • Ergonomics

    • Make work environment fit workers dimensions

    • Rotate employees

    • Working Smarter


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Ergonomics

  • Machinery is often designed

    • Without considering human interface, or

    • To fit the average human

    • One size fits all


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Ergonomics

  • Make equipment fit within limitations and capabilities of the worker


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Ergonomics

  • Two types of Injuries

    • Instantaneous

    • Cumulative Trauma Disorders(CTD)


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Ergonomics

  • Instantaneous

    • Occurs as soon as the incident occurs

    • Most back injuries are coded as instantaneous


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Ergonomics

  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders

    (CTD)

    • Cumulative ~ occurring gradually

    • Trauma ~ bodily injury

    • Disorders ~ Physical ailments of abnormal conditions


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Ergonomics

  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders

    (CTD)

    • Force

    • Repetition

    • Posture

    • Lack of Rest


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Ergonomics - Force

  • Find easier way

  • Use assistive devices

  • Get assistance


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Ergonomics

  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders

    (CTD)

    • Force

    • Repetition

    • Posture

    • Lack of Rest


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Ergonomics - Repetition

  • Rethink task

  • Alter procedure to minimize repetition


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Ergonomics

  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders

    (CTD)

    • Force

    • Repetition

    • Posture

    • Lack of Rest


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Ergonomics - Posture

  • Maintain good posture

  • Modify work environment to facilitate good posture


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Ergonomics - Posture


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Ergonomics

  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders

    (CTD)

    • Force

    • Repetition

    • Posture

    • Lack of Rest


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Ergonomics – Lack of Rest

  • Consider rotating employees

  • Rotation to task that stresses different muscle tendon group


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Employee Orientation & Training

  • Specific – Specific employees

    • Chemical Handling/PPE

    • Mower Safety

    • Chain Saw Safety

    • Guards and Shields

    • Proper Lifting, etc.


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