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Chapter 6 CELLULAR OXIDATION What Is Oxidation? Oxidation = the process of removing an electron form a molecule (e.g. Hydrogen) In the case of energy production, the electron provides the energy needed to reform ATP from ADP and P Ultimately, the H will combine with O 2 to form H 2 O

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Chapter 6 l.jpg

Chapter 6

CELLULAR OXIDATION


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What Is Oxidation?

  • Oxidation = the process of removing an electron form a molecule (e.g. Hydrogen)

  • In the case of energy production, the electron provides the energy needed to reform ATP from ADP and P

  • Ultimately, the H will combine with O2 to form H2O

  • Oxidation involves the Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain, and Beta Oxidation


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Where Does Oxidation Occur?

  • Mitochondria (plural)

  • Mitochondria are located in two areas

    • Subsarcolemmal

    • Intermyofibillar

  • Red in color

  • Outer membrane

  • Intermembrane space

    • Cristea

    • F complexes

  • Inner membrane



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What are the Functions of the Krebs Cycle?

  • An imperfect cycle

  • Products

    • CO2

    • ATP

    • H

  • Which product is most important?

  • Why?


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The Krebs Cycle

  • 3 CO2

  • 1 ATP (GTP)

  • 4 NADH

  • 1 FADH


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How Does Pyruvate Enter the Krebs Cycle?

  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) – a rate limiting enzyme

  • Function/Products

    • Pyruvate to Acetate

    • Add Coenzyme A

    • Produces Acetyl-CoA, CO2, NADH

  • Stimulated by NAD, ADP, CoA

  • Inhibited by NADH, ATP, Acetyl CoA


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Actyl-CoA

  • Sources of Actyl-CoA

    • Glucose (Pyruvate)

    • Fatty acids

    • Amino acids

  • Combines with OAA to form citric acid


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Key Enzymes

  • Isocitric Dehydrogenase (IDH)

  • The rating limiting enzyme

  • Inhibited by NADH

  • Stimulated by NAD+


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What is the Function of NADH and FADH?

  • Transport H to Electron Transport Chain

  • NADH give 3 ATP for every H

  • FADH give 2 ATP for every H



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What Happens in the Electron Transport Chain?

  • Inner mitochondrial membrane

  • Oxidation – removal of electrons (H)

    • Series of steps from higher to lower energy

    • A chemical and electrical gradient is formed


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Phosphorlyation: ADP + P  ATP

Re-entry of H provide energy (Fig. 6-10)

Linked to the formation of water

Oxygen is the final electron acceptor

H2O

More Electron Transport Chain


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GLYCOLYSIS

Start with glucose


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GLYCOLYSIS

End with pyruvate


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KREBS CYCLE

Start with pyruvate being converted to Acetyl-CoA

End up with… NADH/FADH

CO2

ATP




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  • ALL TOGETHER

  • GLYCOLYSIS

  • KREBS

  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

NAD NADH

Lactic Acid


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Anaerobic and Aerobic

  • Initially, most glucose is used aerobicly

  • As more glucose is required, due to an increase in intensity, more NADH

  • If the additional NADH cannot transfer H to mitochondria, then lactate levels increase

  • The more O2 that is supplied to the mitochondria, the less H will be used to convert pyruvate to lactate


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Oxygen Supply

  • Increase cardiac output

    • Increase heart size

    • Increase blood volume

    • Increase red blood cells

  • Increase capillaries

  • Increase myoglobin


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Mitochondria and Training

  • Larger or more mitochondria (double)

  • Same activity level per mito

  • Higher resting metabolic rate

  • Stimulators of new mito:

    • Hypoxia

    • ADP

    • Pi


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Carbon Dioxide

VCO2

Oxygen

LUNGS

Ventilation

HEART

Cardiac

Output

MUSCLE

Oxidation

O2

CO2

  • Energy

  • ATP

  • Kcal

Carbon Dioxide

Oxygen

VO2


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Key Topics

  • Using glucose/glycogen as an aerobic fuel

    • Fate of pyruvate

    • Krebs cycle

    • Electron transport chain

    • Role of oxygen

  • Measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2)


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Assignment

  • By Monday, one question each from chapters 7 & 8.


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