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Chapter 5. 5.5 The Mole 5.6 Molar Mass 5.7 Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations 5.8 Mass Calculations for Reactions. Collection Terms. 1 trio = 3 singers 1 six-pack Cola = 6 cans Cola drink 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 gross of pencils = 144 pencils.

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Chapter 5 l.jpg
Chapter 5

5.5 The Mole

5.6 Molar Mass

5.7 Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations

5.8 Mass Calculations for Reactions


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Collection Terms

1 trio = 3 singers

1 six-pack Cola = 6 cans Cola drink

1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts

1 gross of pencils = 144 pencils


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A Moles of Particles

Contains6.02 x 1023particles

1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms

1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 1023H2O molecules

1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions and

6.02 x 1023Cl– ions


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Examples of Moles

Moles of elements

1 mole Mg = 6.02 x 1023 Mg atoms

1 mole Au = 6.02 x 1023 Au atoms

Moles of compounds

1 mole NH3 = 6.02 x 1023 NH3 molecules

1 mole C9H8O4 = 6.02 x 1023aspirin molecules


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Avogadro’s Number

6.02 x 1023 particles

1 mole

or

1 mole

6.02 x 1023 particles


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Learning Check

Suppose we invented a new collection unit called a mep. One mep contains 8 objects.

A. How many paper clips in 1 mep?

1) 1 2) 4 3) 8

B. How many oranges in 2.0 meps?

1) 4 2) 8 3) 16

C. How many meps contain 40 gummy bears?

1) 5 2) 10 3) 20


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Solution

Suppose we invented a new collection unit called a mep. One mep contains 8 objects.

A. How many paper clips in 1 mep?

3) 8

B. How many oranges in 2.0 meps?

3) 16

C. How many meps contain 40 gummy bears?

1) 5


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Learning Check

1. Number of atoms in 0.500 mole of Al

1) 500 Al atoms

2) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms

3) 3.01 x 1023 Alatoms

2.Number of moles of S in 1.8 x 1024 S atoms

1) 1.0 mole S atoms

2) 3.0 mole S atoms

3) 1.1 x 1048 mole S atoms


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Solution

1. Number of atoms in 0.500 mol of Al

3) 3.01 x 1023 Alatoms

0.500 mol Al x 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms

1 mol Al

2. Number of moles of S if a sample of S contains 4.50 x 1024 S atoms

2) 3.0 mole S atoms

4.50 x 1024 S atoms x 1 mol S

6.02 x 1023 S atoms


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Molar Mass

  • Number of grams in 1 mole

  • Equal to the numerical value of the atomic mass

    1 mole of C atoms = 12.0 g

    1 mole of Mg atoms = 24.3 g

    1 mole of Cu atoms = 63.5 g


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Learning Check

Give the molar mass to 0.1 g

A. 1 mole of Br atoms = ________

B. 1 mole of Sn atoms = ________


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Solution

Give the molar mass to 0.1 g

A. 1 mole of Br atoms = 79.9 g/mole

B. 1 mole of Sn atoms = 118.7 g/mole


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Molar Mass of Compounds

Mass in grams of 1 mole equal numerically to the sum of the atomic masses

1 mole of CaCl2 = 111.1 g/mole

1 mole Ca x 40.1 g/mole

+ 2 moles Cl x 35.5 g/mole

1 mole of N2O4 = 74.0 g/mole

2 moles N x 14.0 g/mole

+ 4 moles O x 16.0 g/mole


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Learning Check

A.1 mole of K2O = ______g

B. 1 mole of antacid Al(OH)3 = ______g


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Solution

A.1 mole of K2O = 94.2 g

2 K x 39.1 g/mole + 1 O x 16.0 g/mole

B. 1 mole of antacid Al(OH)3 = 78.0 g

1 Al x 27.0 g/mole + 3 O x 16.0 g/mole

+ 3 x 1.0


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Learning Check

Prozac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of serotonin by the brain. It has a molar mass of

1) 40.0 g/mole

2) 262 g/mole

3) 309 g/mole


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Solution

Prozac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of serotonin by the brain. It has a molar mass of

3) 309 g/mole

17C (12.0) + 18H (1.0) + 3F (19.0) + 1N (14.0) + 1 O (16.0)


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Learning Check

What is the percent carbon in C5H8NO4 (MSG monosodium glutamate), a compound used to flavor foods and tenderize meats?

1) 8.22 %C

2) 24.3 %C

3) 41.1 %C


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Solution

Molar mass = 146.0 g/mole

% = total g C x 100

total g compound

= 60.0 g C x 100 = 41.1% C

146.0 g MSG


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Molar Mass Factors

Methane CH4 known as natural gas is used in gas cook tops and gas heaters. Express the molar mass of methane in the form of conversion factors.

Molar mass of CH4 = 16.0 g

16.0 g CH4 and 1 mole CH4

1 mole CH4 16.0 g CH4


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Learning Check

Acetic acid CH3COOH is the acid in vinegar . It has a molar mass of 60.0 g/mole.

1 mole of acetic acid = ____________

1 mole acetic acid or g acetic acid

g acetic acid 1 mole acetic acid


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Solution

Acetic acid CH3COOH is the acid in vinegar . It has a molar mass of 60.0 g/mole.

1 mole of acetic acid = 60.0 g acetic acid

1 mole acetic acid or 60.0 g acetic acid

60.0 g acetic acid 1 mole acetic acid


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Calculations with Molar Mass

molar mass

Grams Moles


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Moles and Grams

Aluminum is often used for the structure of light-weight bicycle frames. How many grams of Al are in 3.00 moles of Al?

3.00 moles Al ? g Al


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1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al

2. Conversion factors for Al

27.0g Al or 1 mol Al

1 mol Al 27.0 g Al

3. Setup 3.00 moles Al x 27.0 g Al

1 mole Al

Answer = 81.0 g Al


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Learning Check

The artificial sweetener aspartame (Nutri-Sweet) formula C14H18N2O5 is used to sweeten diet foods, coffee and soft drinks. How many moles of aspartame are present in 225 g of aspartame?


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Solution

1. Molar mass of Aspartame C14H18N2O5

(14 x 12.0) + (18 x 1.01) + (2 x 14.0) + (5 x 16.0) = 294 g/mole

2. Setup

225 g aspartame x 1 mole aspartame

294 g aspartame

= 0.765 mole aspartame


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