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Windows UNIX Integration in the Enterprise Paul Hinsberg, MCSE, MBA CEO, CRSD Inc http://www.crsdinc.com Integration File/Printing Active Directory/Networking Password/Authentication Emulation Application Interoperability File and Printing Printing Windows and NFS

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Windows unix integration in the enterprise l.jpg

Windows UNIX Integration in the Enterprise

Paul Hinsberg, MCSE, MBA

CEO, CRSD Inc

http://www.crsdinc.com


Integration l.jpg

Integration

  • File/Printing

  • Active Directory/Networking

  • Password/Authentication

  • Emulation

  • Application Interoperability

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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File and Printing

  • Printing

  • Windows and NFS

  • UNIX Samba/PCNetlink

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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LPR/LPD

  • Microsoft provides a LPR client and LPD daemon (server)

  • Windows can print to UNIX LPD via the LPR client

  • Windows can receive print jobs from UNIX LPR

  • Microsoft LPR/LPD is based on RFC1179

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Control Panel ,Network and Dial-up Connections

Click Advanced and Optional Network Components

Select Other Network File and Print Services

LPR/LPD Setup

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Creating Printers

  • To connect to a UNIX LPD printer, you will need to create a LPR printer port when creating the printer.

  • To allow UNIX LPR clients to connect, set the TCP/IP Printer Service to start automatically in Control Panel and then share the printer.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Printer Issues

  • HP-UX has some particulars (see Q150154)

  • Control Characters and Post Script can sometimes create issues. (see Q124735)

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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File Share

  • UNIX utilizes Network File System (NFS) for sharing files systems information

  • Both UNIX and Windows have emulation and compatibility components

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Windows NFS

  • Services for UNIX (SFU) is a Microsoft product that provides a variety of compatibility and integration solutions

  • SFU contains an NFS Client and NFS Server

  • SFU is a separate product for sale from Microsoft (SFU 3.0 retails at $99)

    http://www.microsoft.com/windows/sfu/default.asp

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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NFS Client

  • Once installed can mount UNIX published NFS using standard NET Use and Explorer Commands

  • MOUNT, is also available to Windows Users

  • UNIX systems must be set to allow the Windows client to connect. The client’s machine name is specified.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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NFS Server

  • Provides ability to create NFS Shares

  • Access is controlled via Permissions allow machine names or groups of machines names

  • Root Access can also be provided.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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NFS Server Permissions

  • NFS Server also will translate UNIX user permissions

  • Microsoft DACL are translated to UNIX style permissions list

  • User Name Mapping can be used to map SIDs (Windows Users) to UNIX UIDs and GIDs

    more on UNM and authentication later

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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UNIX Samba

  • Samba is opensource freeware that installs on UNIX machines to provide File and Print services to Windows Clients

  • Once configured, the UNIX system presents itself as a Windows Machine and can appear in the Network Neighborhood.

  • Active Directory publications and DFS Shares can be created to point to the Samba Shares.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Samba Information

  • Samba is configured like many UNIX systems via a series of files.

  • More information can be acquired by visiting:

    Main Samba Site

    http://www.samba.org/

    Samba Intro

    http://us1.samba.org/samba/docs/SambaIntro.html

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Samba Issues

  • Master Browser functionality can sometimes interfere with Windows Operation (Q168821)

  • Configure information in the smb.conf can correct most of the issues.

  • os level, domain master, and preferred master settings should be made to disable browser election functions.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Active Directory / Networking

  • Active Directory relies on some network functions like DNS which both UNIX and Windows can provide

  • Active Directory contains information on objects in an environment including users and devices

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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DNS Compatibilty

  • AD is reliant on correctly configured DNS and hierarchy

  • Any DNS server for Active Directory must support the SRV record type and allow dynamic updates per RFC 2136

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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DNS Issue

  • UNIX servers allowing Dynamic Updates can be a security risk

  • Experience has shown that Microsoft DNS servers can have performance issues under extreme conditions. (Note that .NET server has made some vast improvements.)

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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AD User Integration

  • User Name Mapping

    • Provides a way for user accounts to be mapped to UNIX UID and GID information

    • Relies on UNIX User gathering tools like PCNFS and NIS

    • Provides for one-to-many mappings

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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PCNFS

  • Older style of manual information exchange of passwd files

  • Generally not highly secure

  • User in smaller installation or fore SFU 1.0 compatibility

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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UNIX Network Information Service (NIS)

  • Used to group UNIX systems into administrative units

  • Coordinates the username, passwords, and other files between multiple systems.

  • Windows Server for NIS integrates directly into Active Directory – expanding the schema to include UNIX style information

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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NIS Installations

  • UNIX Daemon must be installed if Windows is to propagate user information

  • UNIX module must be installed on UNIX systems that will propagate changes back to Windows

  • Server for NIS must be installed on a Windows machine and be allowed to alter the schema

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Password Synchronization

  • Is installed with NIS, but does not require NIS

  • Has a UNIX Daemon used to accepting changes from windows (encrypted)

  • Has a UNIX module for allowing changes on UNIX to propagate back to Windows

  • Works with NIS domains or individual machines

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Emulation

  • Provide Windows or UNIX style commands through translation

  • Typical form is that of a virtual machine or second OS on the same system

  • Examples

    • VMWare www.vmware.com

    • Win4Lin www.netraverse.com

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Application Compatibility

  • Unlike emulation, ported APIs allow for a more native method of running code.

  • Windows Compatibility on UNIX

    • WINE wine.codeweavers.com

    • Lindows www.lindows.com

  • UNIX Compatibility on Windows

    • Services for UNIX (Interix)

      http://www.microsoft.com/windows/sfu/default.asp

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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UNIX Application Integration

  • Windows SFU comes with the Interix subsystem which runs in kernel mode on the Windows platform.

  • Running in kernel mode leads to highly integrated operations and enhanced performance.

  • SFU comes with many utilities and functions common in a UNIX environment:

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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SFU Utilities

  • SFU Includes

    • Telnetd

    • Nfs

    • NIS & PCNFS Servers

    • Password Synch

    • C-shell, Kron Shell

    • Cron & Remote Shell utilitiese

    • Interix Subsystem

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Application Integration

  • WINE allows for the running of a good percentage of Windows programs

  • Allows for code developed in Windows C/C++ to be ported

  • Running as an integrated part of the kernel gives it a performance gain over emulators.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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Questions

Please click the question button on the lower left part of the screen to submit a question.

Windows UNIX Integration PaulHins@CRSDINC.COM


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