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46-320-01 Tests and Measurements Intersession 2006 Cognitive Behavioral Assessment Based on principles of behavior modification (learning and cognition) Cause vs. symptom Symptom: precede, coexist, maintain Environmental factors or thought processes Observable phenomenon

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cognitive behavioral assessment
Cognitive Behavioral Assessment
  • Based on principles of behavior modification (learning and cognition)
  • Cause vs. symptom
  • Symptom: precede, coexist, maintain
    • Environmental factors or thought processes
  • Observable phenomenon
  • Goal: changing symptom
operant conditioning based
Operant Conditioning-Based
  • Behaviors are observed
  • Alter probability of recurrence of response
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Punishment
  • Critical response
    • Frequency, intensity, duration – baseline
    • Implement
    • Evaluate intervention against baseline
self report techniques
Self-Report Techniques
  • List of statements about situations (primary determinants of behavior)
  • Fear Survey Schedule (FSS)
    • 50 to 122 items
    • 5- or 7-point scale
    • Identify situations that elicit fear and avoidance
  • Assertiveness Behavior Survey Schedule (ABSS)
    • Situations and consequences
self report
Self-Report
  • Cautela and Upper
    • Self-report battery
    • Primary Scales
    • Secondary Scales
    • Tertiary Scales
  • Evaluating self-report
    • Face validity
    • Adequate psychometric analysis
kanfer and saslow
Kanfer and Saslow
  • Functional Approach
    • Behavioral excesses and deficits
    • Normal and disordered behaviors develop similarly
    • Clarify problem
    • Suggest treatment alternatives
more scales
More Scales
  • Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS)
    • 2 forms; list of statements, 7-point Likert scale
    • Good validity
  • Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT)
    • Beliefs and expectations vs. reality
    • 100 items, agreement on 5-point scale
    • ½ items negatively worded
cognitive functional analysis
Cognitive Functional Analysis
  • Meichenbaum: self-statements critical in behavior
    • Self-appraisals and expectancies
    • Environmental antecedents, environmental consequences, internal dialogue
  • Self-monitoring devices
psychophysiological procedures
Psychophysiological Procedures
  • Quantify physiological responses
  • Heart rate, BP, GSR, skin temp
  • Fear, anger (Ax)
  • Polygraph
  • Sexual arousal
  • Evaluation:
    • Artifacts
    • Direct measurement/Prestimulus strength
    • Demographics
psychophysiological procedures10
Psychophysiological Procedures
  • EEG Biofeedback
    • Alter brain waves
    • Alpha waves
    • Video-game format
clinical neuropsychology
Clinical Neuropsychology
  • What is it?
  • Brain dysfunction, affects of mental/physical illness
  • Memory:
    • Weschler Memory Scale-III
      • Auditory Immediate, Visual Immediate, Immediate Memory, Auditory Delayed, Visual Delayed, Auditory Recognition Delayed, General Memory, and Working Memory
clinical neuropsychology12
Clinical Neuropsychology
  • Localized problems vs. interconnections
  • Left vs. Right hemisphere problems
  • Specific problems
    • E.g., Wernicke’s Aphasia
  • Spatial problems
    • E.g., dressing apraxia
  • Information-processing deficits
    • Recall vs. recognition
developmental neuropsychology
Developmental Neuropsychology
  • Brain injury, lesions, trauma
  • Development and birth complications
  • Executive functions
    • Volition, self-control and self-monitoring
    • Mirsky: Focus Execute, Sustain, Encode, Shift
  • Learning disabilities
    • Dyslexia
developmental neuropsychology15
Developmental Neuropsychology
  • Development of Rehabilitation Plans
    • 1. Testing to determine problem
    • 2. Assessment of environment
    • 3. Treatment plan
    • 4. Ideal treatment plan
    • 5. Availability of resources
    • 6. Realistic remedial plan
    • 7. Progress evaluation
halstead reitan battery
Halstead-Reitan Battery
  • Many tests
    • Halstead category test, Tactual test, Rhythm test, Speech-sounds perception test, Finger oscillation test
    • Related procedures: Trail making test, Strength-of-grip test, Sensory-perceptual examination
  • Performance associated with dysfunction in one hemisphere
luria nebraska neuropsychological battery
Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery
  • Pluripotentiality
  • Golden
    • 269 items, 24 hours
    • 11 subsections
      • Motor functions, rhythm, tactile, visual, receptive speech, expressive speech, writing, reading, arithmetic skills, memory, intellectual processes
    • Scores: subsections, Pathognomic score, left or right hemisphere dysfunction
california verbal learning test
California Verbal Learning Test
  • How errors are made in learning tasks
  • Verbal learning and memory
    • E.g., recall and recognition
  • Good validity
  • CVLT-C
    • Ages 5 to 16
    • Learning disabilities, ADHD, MR, neurological disorders
    • Recall and recognition of words
    • High reliability and validity
anxiety
Anxiety
  • Stress:
    • Frustration, conflict, pressure
    • Exposure causes anxiety
  • STAI
    • 20 items per, 4-point scale
    • A-State, A-Trait
    • Reliability: test-retest
    • Validity: 2 factor structure, good concurrent validity
test anxiety
Test Anxiety
  • Mandler & Sarason: 2 types of responding
    • Task-relevant or task-irrelevant responses
  • Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ)
    • Learned task drive
    • Learned anxiety drive
    • 37 items, 15 cm line (ends and midpoint defined)
    • High reliability
test anxiety21
Test Anxiety
  • Test Anxiety Scale (TAS)
    • Sarason – criticized TAQ for state not trait
    • TAQ items in T/F format (21 items)
    • Person focus (not situation)
    • Valid as measure of personality
  • Emotionality and Worry (Liebert & Morris)
    • Independent dimensions
  • Achievement and Anxiety Test (AAT)
    • Debilitating and facilitating anxiety
coping and social support
Coping and Social Support
  • Ways Of Coping Scale
    • 68 item checklist
    • Thoughts and actions used in stressful situation
    • Problem focused and emotion focused
  • Social Support Questionnaire
    • 27 items, people and satisfaction with support
    • Very stable and valid
quality of life assessment
Quality of Life Assessment
  • Health
  • Psychometric vs. decision theory
  • SF-36
    • 8 health concepts
      • Physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, mental health
    • Good reliability and validity
    • Not age-specific
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