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245 $a Introduction to MARC and DACS for archivists : $b a workshop in cataloging for SIRIS members / $c Michelle McDaniel, Diane Shaw, and Karen Weiss, instructors, $f 2008 Mar. 26. Introduction to MARC and DACS for Archivists SCHEDULE.

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245 $a Introduction to MARC and DACS for archivists : $b a workshop in cataloging for SIRIS members / $c Michelle McDaniel, Diane Shaw, and Karen Weiss, instructors, $f 2008 Mar. 26.

Introduction to MARC and DACS for Archivists SCHEDULE

  • 9:00-9:30 Welcome Introduction: Cataloging Basics

    9:45-10:00 Overview of Cataloging Content Standards

  • 10:00-10:45 Part I Description DACS Requirements

    Description for different formats/different levels

  • 10:45-11:00 Break

  • 11:15-12:00 Description, cont’d Exercise

  • 12:00-1:00 Lunch

  • 1:00-2:15 Part II: Access points / Index terms

  • Authority Records in DACS and MARC Subjects- Topical, Form, Geographic, Other2:15-2:45 Index Terms: Exercises

  • 2:45-3:00 Break

  • 3:00-3:30 Fixed Field data, Action Fields, Linking Tags, Other Fields

  • 3:30-4:00 Q&A and Discussion

Cataloging Basics

Why add catalog records for your archival materials to SIRIS?

  • Helps researchers find basic information about your holdings

  • Compared with creating a finding aid, a catalog record is a quicker (though less detailed) way to document what you have

  • Availability of collection management features for staff use

So what do you need to know to contribute records to SIRIS?

  • MARC - Machine Readable Cataloging (a data structure standard) and basic ISBD / International Standard Bibliographical Description punctuation

  • DACS - Describing Archives: A Content Standard, or other data content standard(s)


  • MARC (the current version is generally referred to as MARC 21) is a method of coding data that enables computer systems to properly display, index, search, and retrieve information from catalog records

  • MARC 21 has various formats, e.g: Bibliographic; Authority; Holdings; Classification (you’ll only be concerned with the first two; and this workshop will focus primarily on the MARC Bibliographic format)

Where did MARC come from?

  • MARC grew out of a Library of Congress-based initiative from the beginnings of computerized cataloging, ca. 1960s, and is still maintained by the Library of Congress, in cooperation with Library and Archives Canada

  • Website for MARC:


Elements of a MARC Record

A MARC record consists of these main sections:

  • The leader (partially computer-generated; includes information on encoding level, type of record, whether record is collection or item-level, archival control, etc. Includes “fixed field” elements)

  • The directory (entirely computer-generated, a sort of index to the fields in the record)

  • Variable control fields (001-006; generally not used in archival cataloging)

  • Variable data fields (01X-8XX), where most of the data content is contained

Common MARC Terms

  • Field (Type of data)

    Examples: Title; Date; Creator; Subject

  • Tag (field identifier, generally 3 digits long)

    Examples of tags: 245 (title statement); 300 (physical description); 650 (topical subject added entry)

  • Every tag has a specific meaning and is limited in how it can be used

  • Tags are grouped numerically according to purpose, e.g. 1XX fields are versions of main entry; 5XX fields are notes; 6XX fields are various kinds of subject headings

More common MARC terms

  • Indicator:

    Two character spaces immediately following each tag that instruct the computer on the number of characters to skip for initial articles in titles, or specify a particular label to accompany a field in the OPAC, etc. (often left blank)

  • Examples:

    245 14 The cat in the hat.

    520 __ Summary: ....

    520 2_ Scope and content: ...

More common MARC terms

  • Subfield: A component part of a field

    Examples of subfield names: Extent; Dimensions; Inclusive dates

  • Subfield code: Alphabetical or numerical code that identifies a subfield for the computer system; preceded by a “delimiter” symbol (given here as $)

    Example: 300 __ $a 3 boxes

    Example: 245 10 $a Diary, $f 1820-1823.

    Example: 655 _7 $a Aerial photographs. $2 aat

But we’re archivists! Why use MARC, instead of, say, EAD?

  • While EAD is also a data structure standard, it’s not what most Integrated Library System (ILS) vendors such as SIRSI-Dynix use for programming their catalogs. For the time being, MARC is considered the international standard for encoding bibliographic records.

  • MARC is the standard to use if you want to contribute records to a union catalog (e.g. OCLC’s Worldcat) or to participate in collaborative projects within SI (the cross-searching portal) or with other repositories

  • MARC records have fields that can link to finding aids, inventories, can serve as a companion or abstract to other descriptive tools.

OCLC / Worldcat

  • OCLC’s Cataloging Service is called Connexion

  • Connexion is used for editing and creating MARC bibliographic and authority records

  • Bibliographic records in Connexion are made available on the Internet through the Firstsearch / Worldcat online union catalog (accessible through SIL’s “Tools for the Researcher” web page)


  • MARC will be moving to an XML framework eventually; and in the meantime it’s possible to use cross-walks to convert MARC to EAD or Dublin Core, etc

  • EAD Tag Library and Data Definitions include MARC encoding analogs to support cross-walks.


  • <repository label="Repository:" encodinganalog="852$a">

  • <corpname>Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution</corpname>

  • </repository>

  • <origination label="Creator:">

  • <persname encodinganalog="100">Romare Bearden</persname>

  • </origination>

  • <unittitle label="Title:" encodinganalog="245$a">Romare Bearden papers</unittitle>

  • <unitdate label="Dates:">1937-1982</unitdate>

  • <physdesc label="Quantity:" encodinganalog="300$a">2 linear feet</physdesc>

DACS and its Antecedents

  • DACS was published by the Society of American Archivists in 2004

  • DACS is a revision of Steve Hensen’s / SAA’s manual, Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (1989), which was created to adapt Chapter 4 of the 2nd ed. of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) to the needs of the archival community. AACR2, as the grand-daddy of cataloging rules, is worth reviewing here briefly

Anglo American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed. Revised (AACR2r)

  • Covers the description of, and provision of access points for, all formats of library materials. Includes rules for establishing name (but not subject) headings.

  • Published jointly by American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (U.K.). The 1st ed. (AACR) appeared in 1967; the 2nd ed. in 1978; the 2nd rev. ed. in 1988. It is slated for replacement by Resource Description and Access (RDA) in 2009.

Chapter 1 – General rules

Chapter 2 – Books, Pamphlets

Chapter 3 – Cartographic

Chapter 4 – Manuscripts

Chapter 5 - Music

Chapter 6 – Sound recordings

Chapter 7 – Motion pictures / video

Chapter 8 – Graphic materials

Chapter 9 – Electronic resources

Chapter 10 – Three Dimensional and realia

Chapter 11 – Continuing Resources

Structure of AACR2Part I – Description

Part II - chapters 21-26

Chapter 21 -Choice of Access Points

Chapter 22 - Headings for Persons

Chapter 23 -Geographic Names

Chapter 24-Headings for Corporate Bodies

DACS summarizes these 4 chapters in Part III

Structure of AACR2 Part II – Headings, Uniform Titles, and References

Future of AACR2: RDA

  • RDA (Resource Description and Access) is the working title for “AACR3”

  • RDA is being developed as a new standard designed for the digital world, covering all types of content and media (both digital and analog) with greater flexibility than AACR2

  • RDA will be able to align with a variety of metadata standards and emerging database technologies, not limited to MARC

  • Existing catalog records in MARC will be compatible with RDA; the form of some headings may be changed (e.g. for the Bible; also will allow a family name to be a “creator”)

  • RDA’s website: http://www.rdaonline.org/

Released Jan. 9, 2008

Working Group’s charge: Present findings on how bibliographic control and other descriptive practices can effectively support management of and access to library materials in the evolving information and technology environment

Recommend ways in which the library community can collectively move toward achieving this vision

Advise the Library of Congress on its role and priorities

Future Developments in Cataloging

Related Developments

  • Social tagging added to catalog data

  • Open Source ILS development; integrating more non-MARC content with MARC

  • EAC – Encoded Archival Context – new data format to replace authority record promoted by international archival community

The Role of Companion Content Standards

MARC 21Doesn’t Exist in a Vacuum

  • Behind every great MARC tag is a great content standard.

  • To use MARC tags, need to understand the various rules for different formats, and repository’s own policies, practices, priorities.

  • To use DACS, need to understand other content standards (DACS Appendix B)

The nice thing



is that there are

so many

of them to



AACR2 All formats

ISAD(G) Archives

DACS Archives

Betz (Graphic materials)

OHCM (Oral History)

IASA (Sound)

AMIM (Moving Image)

DCRM (Rare Books)

CCO (Art works, artifacts)

AMREMM – Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance…

Content Standards for Archivistssee also http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/reladesc.html

Supplement to Chapter 8 of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules,

Photographic prints, negatives, albums posters, cartoons, popular and fine prints, and architectural drawings. 

1982 (print)

Updates 1997 and 2002

Available online in PDF and Word http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/gm/graphmat.html

Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections

Graphic Materials “Betz”http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/grph0412.htm

IASA Cataloging Rules: A Manual for the Description of Sound Recordings and Related Audiovisual Media 1999



Designed as companion to APPM; conforms to AACR2

Treats Oral History as a distinct intellectual form, defined as: “The process of deliberately eliciting and preserving, usually in audio or audio and visual recording media, a person’s spoken recollections of events and experiences based on first- hand knowledge”

Oral History Cataloging Manual (ohcm)

Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual, 2nd Edition (2000)

  • Prepared by a committee of LC Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Staff

  • Cataloging Rules (within the general framework of AACR2, Chapter 7) for all types of moving image materials including features, shorts, television programs, documentaries, newscasts, newsreels, educational works, home movies, compilations, commercials, trailers, excerpts, unedited footage, outtakes, and more. The rules cover all formats from 3-D to DVD.

  • New rules for collection-level cataloging

  • Examples using MARC 21 content designation

Archival Moving Image Materials (AMIM)http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/arch0332.htm

2004, 2007

Replaces APPM

Principles Developed out of CUSTARD – Canadian U.S. Task Force on Archival Description and based on ISAD(G)

Statement of Principles

Levels of description in statement

DACSDescribing Archives : A Content Standard


Reference code(s)



Level of description

Extent and medium of the unit of description (quantity, bulk, or size)


Administrative / Biographical history

Archival history

Immediate source of acquisition or transfer


Scope and content

Appraisal, destruction and scheduling information


System of arrangement


Conditions governing reproduction

Language/scripts of material

Physical characteristics and technical requirements

Finding aids


Existence and location of originals

Existence and location of copies

Related units of description

Publication note




Archivist's Note

Rules or Conventions

Date(s) of descriptions

ISAD(G) – International Standard for Archival Descriptionhttp://www.ica.org/sites/default/files/isad_g_2e.pdf


Reference code

Name and Location of Repository




Name of Creators

Administrative / Biographical history


Scope and content

System of arrangement


Conditions governing access

Physical access

Technical Access

Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use

Languages and Scripts of the Material

Finding Aids

ACQUISITION AND APPRAISAL ELEMENTS (chapter 5)Conditions governing Custodial history

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Appraisal, Destruction, and Scheduling Information



Existence and location of originals

Existence and location of copies

Related archival materials

Publication note

NOTES ELEMENT (chapter 7)

Note not defined by other elements


Sources used, rules or conventions, name of the person who prepared or revised, date created or revised

DACSDescribing Archives: A Content Standard

Requirements per DACS


  • Reference code(s)

  • Name and Location of Repository

  • Title

  • Date

  • Extent

  • Name of Creator(s)

  • Scope and Content (may be short)

  • Conditions Governing Access

  • Language and Scripts

    * ex.: Preliminary accession record, database at a single level; METS record for a description of archival materials

Requirements Per DACS

SINGLE LEVEL OPTIMUM – all minimum plus:

  • Administrative/Biographical History

  • Scope and Content (expanded)

  • Access points

    SINGLE LEVEL ADDED VALUE– all optimum plus:

  • Any other elements the repository wants to include

DACS Single Level Minimum Requirements and MARC Equivalents

DACS, MARC and Multilevel Description

DACS: Examples of Multilevel descriptions include:

  • Preliminary or full inventory or finding aid

  • a database record in a CMS that describes materials at more than one level

  • multiple linked MARC records

    Requirements at the Multi-Level are almost identical save for the Identification of Whole-Part Relationship

  • MARC 7XX Linking and Leader Bibliographic Level

  • MARC 007, c- collection; d-subunit (series/folder); m-item

  • In MARC 351 $c

Part I: Description

  • Minimum Requirements (per DACS)

  • Title (MARC 245)

  • Date (MARC 245 |f) 260 |c for some formats

  • Extent (MARC 300)

  • Name of Creator(s) (MARC 1XX, 7XX)Identifying Creators

  • Scope and Content (MARC 520)

  • Conditions Governing Access (MARC 506)

  • Reference code (MARC 040)

  • Location of repository (MARC 852)

TitleMARC 245

  • Catalogers of archival materials will mostly supply a title

  • A formal title most often on published materials, items, or files – refer to AACR2 or specialized rules

  • Sources for information for supplied titles, use materials being described or any reliable source

Title MARC 245 continued

  • Per DACS, supplied title composed of

    Name segment + nature of the archival unit

  • Per Betz, supplied title should be descriptive, enclosed in brackets; optional to add general material designation (GMD)

  • Formal titles: refer to AACR2r or specialized manual

Title 245 Examples

245 $a Florence Allen papers

245 $a Leo Castelli Gallery records

245 $a Winslow Homer collection

245 $a Horace Pippin notebooks and letters

245 $a Willard Metcalf sketchbooks

245 $a Si Lewen photograph albums

245 $a Margery Hoffman Smith papers regarding Timberline Lodge, Oregon

245 $a [Diego Rivera and Robert H. Tannahill] $h [graphic]

245 $a Abraham and Esther Rattner letter to Helen Kroll Kramer

DateMarc 245 $f or 260 $c

  • Most archivists will record a range of dates or a single date of creation, such as date of writing a letter, photograph taken, sound recorded, video or aggregate of creation for all documents described

  • Use Fixed Field 008 Type of date and date

DateMarc 245 $f or 260 $c

  • DACS outlines variety of situations:

  • Inclusive dates – earliest to latest

  • Bulk or predominant dates

  • Ongoing / accruals expected

  • Format for recording significant gaps

  • Estimated date ranges and estimated single dates

  • Exact dates

  • No dates

  • Examples show 260 $c for published and specialized formats (photographs)

Date 245Examples

  • $aJack Greenbaum scrapbook and interviews,$f1961-1978.

  • $aAbraham and Esther Rattner letter to Helen Kroll Kramer,$fundated.

  • aKraushaar Galleries records,$f1877-1978,$gbulk 1926-1968.

  • $aJack Greenbaum scrapbook and interviews,$f1961-1978.

  • Lessing J. Rosenwald interview, 1970 Aug. 18.

  • Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers, $fcirca 1905-1984.

ExtentMarc 300

  • Indicates the extent and physical nature of materials being described.

  • Formatted as a number and extent (linear or cubic feet, items, or containers); or material type.

  • Take material types, general or specific, from AAT, LC Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, LCSH.

  • Don’t repeat material type if provided in title

  • Can record multiple statements or highlights

  • Allows estimates, (“approximately,” “circa,” “about”)

Extent Examples

DACS:300 $a45 $f linear feet

  • 300 $a10 $f items

  • 300 $a 3 boxes

  • 300 $a 3 sound recordings

  • 300 $a 45 linear feet, including 200 photographs and 16 maps

  • 300 $a 71 $f maps (3.5 cubic feet)Note: use of $f to code extent is optional


  • $3Sound recording, master:$a7 sound cassettes (ca. 11 hrs.); $banalog.

    300 $3Sound recording, duplicate:$a7 cassettes

    300$3Transcript: $a373 p.


Specific formats:

300 $a1 drawing :$bpencil, pen and ink on paper ;$c19 x 11.5 cm., on sheet 28 x 20.1 cm.

  • $3Sound recording:$a2 sound cassettes

    300 $3Transcript: $a149 p.

    300 $a3 $fphotographic prints :$bb&w ;$c10 x 8 in.

Name of Creator(s)

DACS – Statement of Principle No. 8:

“The creators of archival materials, as well as the materials themselves, must be described.”

  • DACS Element 2.6 Name of Creator(s) requires following rules in Part II, Chapter 9, Identifying Creators.

  • Names of creators serve as access points

Name of Creator(s)1xx, 7xx and title - name segment

DACS Part II, Describing Creators identifies 3 steps:

  • Identify the individuals, families, and corporate bodies that played a significant role in the creation of the materials.

  • Assemble biographical information for persons; history, structure, functions for an organization.

  • Formulate names in a standardized form based on AACR2 – outlined in DACS chapters 12, 13, 14.

    Note: While Administrative history/biographical information is not required, it is likely that it will need to be included to fullfill step 2.

Name of Creator(s) 1xx, 7xx and title - name segment

  • Source for creator name(s) will usually be name segment in supplied title

  • DACS provides guidance for multiple names, family names, corporate bodies

  • Multiple person names can be in title, but only one corporate name can be in title

  • Also use Administrative/Biographical History Element (Chapter 10) (MARC 545)

Name of Creator(s)Examples

100 1 $aPollock, Jackson,$d1912-1956

245 10 $aJackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers

  • 1 $aKrasner, Lee,$d1908-


  • 1 $aChurchill, Alfred Vance,$d1864-1949

  • 1 0 $aAlfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger,$f1888-1944.

    Feininger is a 600 and 700 – other creator – in this record.

Name of Creator(s)Examples

1102 $aAmerican Academy in Rome

2451 0$aAmerican Academy in Rome records,$f1855-circa 1981,$gbulk 1894-1946 ___________________________

  • 1 $aMontoya, José

  • 1 0$aJosé and Malaquias Montoya interviews,$f1988 Feb. 28 - June 2.

    7001 $aMontoya, Malaquias,$d1938-

Administrative history Biographical informationMARC 545

  • Provide admin/bio info. for each creator

  • Can be divided into brief summary – $a name, dates, profession and geographic location, and expanded in $b as a biographical/administrative history.

  • For MARC 545, usually brief.

Administrative history Biographical informationMARC 545

Types of information to include for people:

  • Full name, title, married name, alias, pseudonyms, common or popular names

  • Families: provide info. on origin of the family, names of persons forming family, marriages, children

  • Dates

  • Place(s) of residence

  • Occupation, life, activities

Administrative history Biographical informationMARC 545

Types of information to include for corporate bodies:

  • Functions, activities

  • Dates of founding and dissolution

  • Geographical areas

  • Structure

  • Predecessor and successor bodies

  • Changes in name

  • Officers

Administrative history Biographical informationExamples

545 $a John Frederick Peto (1854-1907) was a painter; Island Heights, N.J.

545 $a Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was an African-American painter and educator; New York, N.Y. and Seattle, Wash.. $bLawrence was born Jacob Armstead Lawrence, September 17, 1917, Atlantic City, N.J. He died June 9, 2000, in Seattle. Worked for the WPA's Federal Art Project and taught at Black Mountain College, in North Carolina, Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), the University of Washington, and others.

Administrative history/biographical Information -Example

545 $aArt school; Rome, Italy. $b Organized in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome. In 1897 it was dissolved and its assets turned over to the newly established American Academy in Rome, not a traditional school, but a place where architects, painters and sculptors could work in close association. After merging with the American School of Classical Studies (f. 1895) on the last day of 1912, the American Academy in Rome consisted of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies. The School of Fine Arts soon expanded its scope to include fellowships in landscape architecture (1915), musical composition (1920), and history of art (1947). The Academy's New York office is now located at 7 East 60th St., New York, N.Y. (2001).

Scope and Content Element520

  • For minimum level records, can be brief.

  • Can include the following information:

    Functions, activities, transactions, etc.

    Documentary forms or intellectual characteristics (diaries, reports, correspondence)

    Time period(s) covered

    Geographic area(s)

    Subjects - topics, events, people, organizations

    Any other information repository feels is relevant

Scope and Content ElementExamples

Note: MARC $a and $b for expansion.

520 $a Almost one-half of the collection consists of printed materials, including full issues of New Masses, Liberator, and Der Hammer, all featuring illustrations by Gropper. Circa 600 letters include those written to Gropper by Frank Crowninshield, Robert Henri, Louis Lozowick, Raphael Soyer, and others. Also found are photographs of Gropper, his family, colleagues, and friends, as well as scattered writings and notes, business records, biographical information, three drawings, and a fabric sample designed by Gropper.

520 $aThree folders of scattered Biographical Information are found for William Gropper, his wife Sophie and their children. Business Records consist of lists of artwork, price lists, contracts, receipts, and other financial records. Scattered Writings and Notes include mostly writings about Gropper by others, lists of works of art, and miscellaneous writings. Works of Art include three original drawings by Gropper and a sample of fabric designed by Gropper. Circa 600 letters within the papers were written to William Gropper between 1916 and 1977 (bulk, 1970s), although Sophie Gropper's correspondence is also included. Found here are letters from Frank Crowninshield, Robert Henri, Louis Lozowick, Frank Alva Parsons, Raphael Soyer, and others. There are also letters concerning Gropper's participation in the Federal Art Project and from Ben Horowitz of the Heritage Gallery who represented Gropper's artwork.

Conditions Governing Access506

  • Provides information about access restrictions imposed by a donor, the repository, or regulations.

  • Use also if there are no restrictions.

Conditions Governing AccessExamples

  • 506$cCollection is currently being processed and is closed to researchers.

  • 506 $c Collection is open for research use.

  • 506$cAccess restricted; use requires written permission until 2020.

  • 506 $c Access to microfilmed materials will only be given through microfilm; no access to originals will be allowed due to their fragile condition. [Note: Online access will be available approximately 2009].

Language and Scripts of the MaterialMARC 546

  • Identifies the language(s), script(s) and symbol systems employed in the materials described particularly as they may affect use

  • Common practice to use for materials not in English

Language and Scripts of the MaterialEXAMPLES

Can use $3 to describe a portion of the materials.

  • $3 Entire collection is in $a Italian.


  • $a In Italian.

    546 $3 Letters from Auguste Rodin in $a French.

Reference CodeMARC 040

  • Unique identifier consisting of 3 elements:

    • Local identifier

    • Repository code – corresponds to Name of Repository Element (MARC 852)

    • Country code (not required in MARC)

  • Uses national and international code lists

  • Different requirements for EAD, MARC

  • Description convention in MARC (040 $e) is DACS <descrules>, chapter 8, Description Control

Name and Location of RepositoryMARC 852

  • DACS: Identifies the name and location of the repository that holds the materials.

  • MARC: Identifies the organization holding the item or from which it is available. May also contain detailed information about how to locate the item in a collection.

  • Follow institutional/unit policies and procedures.

  • Note: MARC has additional subfields for specific shelving locations

  • Can by mapped to MARC Holdings Format.

Name and Location of RepositoryExample

  • 852 $a Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, $e Washington, D.C. 20560

  • 852 $3 (1 box) $c V30E5

Other DACS Elements and MARC Tags

  • System of Arrangement 351

  • Physical Access 340, 506

  • Technical Access 340, 538

  • Sponsor 536

  • Conditions governing reproduction and use 540

  • Immediate Source of Acquisition 541

  • Location of other archival materials 544


  • Finding aids 555

  • Custodial history 561

  • Appraisal, destruction 583 (Action)

  • Existence Location of Originals 535

  • Existence/location of copies 530

  • Related Archival Materials 544

  • Publication Note 581

  • Rules or conventions 583

  • Archivist and date 583

  • MARC 856 Electronic Location and Access


Authority Records and DACS

  • DACS Chapter 11, Authority Records, provides rules for elements, not how records are stored or displayed

  • Based on International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (ISAAR(CPF).

  • Four types of information:

    • Authoritative form of name and variants

    • Description of history or activities

    • References to related persons, families, corporate bodies

    • Management information re the authority record

Authority Records and EAC

  • Encoded Archival Context (EAC) out in beta version.

  • Companion XML Schema to EAD.

  • For more info.: http://xml.coverpages.org/ni2004-08-24-a.html

EAC Projectshttp://www.ncecho.org/nceac/

Authority Records in MARC

  • 040 – Cataloguing source (NR), the agency responsible for the cataloguing

  • $a Abbreviation of the agency responsible for the original cataloguing

  • $b language of the cataloguing

  • $c Transcribing agency

  • $d Modifying agency

  • $e Description conventions

  • 100 – Personal Name

  • $a Last name, first name, middle names and initials

  • $q (Fuller forms of initials)

  • $b Numeration

  • $c Titles

  • $d Dates

  • 400 – See From Personal name, used when there are other versions of a name or for name changes

Authority Records in MARC cont’d

  • 500 – See Also Personal name, used when another name is another bibliographic identity, often used to keep fiction works separate from professional work

  • 667 – Non-public note, used for information pertinent to cataloguers, to aid in further identifying the 100

  • 670 – Source data found

  • $a Reference source

  • $b Information

  • 675 – Source data not found, used for those times when respected reference works do not turn up any useful data

Name Authority Record

  • 000 01043cz 2200217n 4500

  • 008 020619na acannaabn fa aaa c

  • 010 $anr2002022925

  • 035 $a5835352

  • 035 $a(DLC)nr2002022925

  • 040 $aDSI-AAA$beng$cDSI-AAA$dDLC

  • 1001 $aHuston, Clair Aubrey,$db. 1857

  • 4001 $aHuston, Aubrey,$db. 1857

  • 4001 $aHuston, C. Aubrey$q(Clair Aubrey),$db. 1857

  • 4001 $aHuston, C. A.$q(Clair Aubrey),$db. 1857

  • 4001 $aHuston, C. Aubrey

  • 670 $aSeeker in the Marshes:$b(Aubrey Huston)

  • 670 $aPhiladelphia Sketch Club records, 1860-1949:$b(C. Aubrey Huston)

  • 670 $aWwasW Amer. art, 1999:$b(C. Aubrey Huston, b. 1857, Philadelphia, Penn., painter)

OCLC – Connexion Authority Record


Access Points Subject and Genre Headings

Subject Cataloging Manual (SCM)

  • Focuses on LC subject cataloging practices

  • Divided into sections on Classification, Shelf-listing, and Subject headings (the latter part is the only one relevant for archivists).

  • Explains the principles behind formulating subject headings and subdivisions

Basics of subject cataloging

  • MARC has special fields for adding Library of Congress Subject Headings, Local (non-LC) subject headings, form-genre headings, and thesaurus headings to your records

  • Ideally, your repository should have its own guidelines for the subject cataloging of its materials, based on what is most effective and helpful for the needs of your staff and researchers

Library of Congress Subject Headings

  • Search the LC Authorities file for subject, name, and title forms at http://authorities.loc.gov/

  • For personal name and family name headings as subjects, use tag 600 with the LC Authority File form (if available). If the name is not in the LCAF, use the guidelines in DACS chapter 12 to develop the proper heading.

    600 10 Henry, Joseph, $d 1797-1878.

    600 30 Adams family.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

  • For corporate body name headings, use tag 610 with the LC Authority File form (if available). If the name is not in the LCAF, use the guidelines in DACS chapter 14 to develop the proper heading

    610 20 Smithsonian Archives.

    610 10 United States. $b National Park Service.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

  • For conference or meeting name headings, use tag 611 with the LC Authority File form (if available). If the name is not in the LCAF, use the guidelines in DACS chapter 14.7 and 14.8 to develop the proper heading

    611 20 Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

    611 20 United States Exploring Expedition $d (1838-1842)

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

Topical subject headings taken from the LC Authority File use tag 650 with indicators _0:

650 _0 Mexican American artists.

650 _0 World War, 1939-1945.

650 _0 Apache Indians.

650 _0 Aeronautics.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

Geographical subject headings taken from the LC Authority File use tag 651 with indicators _0:

651 _0 United States.

However: U.S. as a political jurisdiction is tagged as a 610 10.

651 _0 Washington (D.C.)

651 _0 Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

Use authorized subdivisions with LCSH headings.

There are 4 basic types:

1. Topical

650 _0 Endangered species $x Research.

650 _0 Flags $x Conservation and restoration.

610 20 Smithsonian Institution $x Art collections.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

2. Geographical

650 _0 Architecture $z Africa

650 _0 Volcanoes $z Pacific Ocean

650 _0 City planning $z Washington (D.C.)

650 _0 Museums $z California $z Los Angeles

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

3. Chronological

651 _0 United States $x History $y 1783-1815.

651 _0 United States $x History $y Civil War, 1861-1865.

650 _0 Art, Japanese $y 20th century.

651 _0 Virginia $x Social life and customs $y To 1775.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, continued

4. Form

650 _0 Women $v Biography.

600 10 Washington, George $d 1732-1799 $v Portraits.

630 00 New York times $v Indexes.

600 10 Motherwell, Robert $v Exhibitions.

650 _0 Air pilots $v Correspondence.

Form / Genre Headings

  • You can use selected LCSH headings as form / genre headings. Instead of tagging them as 650’s, you should tag them as 655 _0:

    655 _0 Diaries.

    655 _0 Foreign films.

  • Sometimes, you’ll see the $2 lcsh added:

    655 _7 Blueprints. $2 lcsh

Local Subject Headings

  • Local subject headings selected from a controlled vocabulary list (e.g. a list created by your repository or taken from a published list) are tagged 650 _7 with a $2 code specifying the source of the term

    650 _7 Nok terracottas. $2 aat

  • Uncontrolled subject terms are tagged as 653 and can be listed in the same string (each gets $a)

    653 __ Horses $a Diseases $a Germany

Weekly Subject Heading Lists ex.: for Art Librarians(ARLIS-L)



  • Has no indicators or subfield codes; the data elements are positionally defined.

  • In SIRIS, the Label View is helpful to understand the definitions and options


05 - Record status a - Increase in encoding level c - Corrected or revised d - Deleted n - New p - Increase in encoding level from prepublication


06 - Type of record a - Language material c - Notated music d - Manuscript notated music e - Cartographic material f - Manuscript cartographic material g - Projected medium i - Nonmusical sound recording j - Musical sound recording k - Two-dimensional non-projectable graphic m - Computer file o - Kit p - Mixed materials r - Three-dimensional artifact or naturally occurring object t - Manuscript language material

LEADER, cont’d

07 - Bibliographic level a - Monographic component part b - Serial component part c - Collection d - Subunit i - Integrating resource m - Monograph/Item s - Serial

08 - Type of control # - No specified type a - Archival


  • 001 - Control NumberFull | Concise

  • 003 - Control Number IdentifierFull | Concise

  • 005 - Date and Time of Latest TransactionFull | Concise

  • 006 - Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material CharacteristicsFull | Concise

  • 007 - Physical Description Fixed FieldFull | Concise

  • 008 - Fixed-Length Data ElementsFull | Concise

Physical Description Fixed Field 007

  • 007 --MAP


  • 007--GLOBE



  • 007--MICROFORM



  • 007--KIT




  • 007--TEXT




  • 01 - Specific material designation Special class of videorecording to which an item belongs.

  • c - Videocartridge

  • d - Videodisc

  • f - Videocassette

  • r - Videoreel

  • u - Unspecified

  • z - Other

  • | - No attempt to code

  • 02 - Undefined Contains blank (#) or a fill character (|).

  • 03 - Color Color characteristics of a videorecording.

  • a - One color Not used with videorecordings.

  • b - Black-and-white

  • c - Multicolored

  • m - Mixed

  • n - Not applicable Item has no images, e.g., a videorecording with sound only.

008 - Fixed-Length Data Elements

  • Forty character positions (00-39) that provide coded information about the record as a whole and about special bibliographic aspects of the item being cataloged. These coded data elements are potentially useful for retrieval and data management purposes.

  • Dates in 245 $f (or 260 $c) are coded for retrieval here

008 - Fixed-Length Data Elements

  • Positions 06-14 used for date related information, including type of date (inclusive, single, unknown, questionable, multiple, etc.) and dates.

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