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What Would You See if you Were On a Nucleus?. Topics for Today. Elements and Atoms and Molecules, oh boy Inside the Atom Mass Number and Isotopes More on Radon. Readings in Text. 1.7 Atoms & Molecules 2.2 Atomic Structure and Periodicity. Topics for Friday.

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What would you see if you were on a nucleus

What Would You See if you Were On a Nucleus?


Topics for today

Topics for Today

  • Elements and Atoms and Molecules, oh boy

  • Inside the Atom

  • Mass Number and Isotopes

  • More on Radon


Readings in text

Readings in Text

1.7 Atoms & Molecules

2.2 Atomic Structure and Periodicity


Topics for friday

Topics for Friday

  • Quiz #1 at the end of the period.

  • You can find the practice questions on the course website (News of the Week on the Monthly Calender).


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • What is radiation? How do radioactive substances behave?


Topics for friday1

Topics for Friday

  • Radiation

  • History and discovery of radioactivity

  • Alpha, beta, and gamma decay

  • Quiz #1


Readings

Readings

  • Chapter 2 on the electromagnetic spectrum (page 75)

  • Chapter 7.7 - What is radioactivity?

How are gamma rays different than visible light? How are they similar?


Announcements

Announcements

  • Assignment #1 is due in your TA’s email Inbox Monday before lecture!

  • Please send to your TA and myself!

  • See the course website for the full details!


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

PRELAB QUIZ for Week #2

Due before your lab

next week

Unlimited number of tries allowed this week only.


Topics for today1

Topics for Today

  • Elements and Atoms and Molecules, oh boy

  • Inside the Atom

  • Mass Number and Isotopes

  • More on Radon


Handout

Handout


Element

ELEMENT:

Eleven elements make up over 99% of your body.

Which ones?


Chapter 11 page 488

Chapter 11 (page 488)

  • Elements in the human body

    Figure 11.3 and Table 11.2

Which compound

is most abundant in

your body?


Review elements

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Review - Elements

  • One of the hundred or so symbols on the periodic table.

  • Which ones do you need to know?


Interlude

Interlude


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that we can identify as the element.

Can we SEE atoms?


Microscopes

Microscopes


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Copper Surface

Scanning Tunneling Microscope


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • What is wrong with this picture?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • What is wrong with this picture?

  • How big are these atoms?


Short answer

Short Answer

The diameter is around 1 to 5 x 10-10 meters

Or 0.0000000001 meters!

How small is this?


Powers of 10 website

Powers of 10 Website

  • http://molecular.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/index.html


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • A pinhead is about 1 x 10-3 meters (1 mm) in diameter

  • Therefore, more than 1,000,000 atoms can fit across a pinhead!


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

~3 x 10-10 meters

in diameter

(~300 x 10-12 meter)


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

~3 x 10-10 meter

  • The nucleus is about 1/100,000 of the diameter.


Back to the pinheads

Back to the Pinheads

  • What if the nucleus had a diameter of a pinhead (1 mm)?


Back to the pinheads1

Back to the Pinheads

  • What if the nucleus had a diameter of a pinhead (1 mm)?

How big would the atom be?


Back to the pinheads2

Back to the Pinheads

  • What if the nucleus had a diameter of a pinhead (1 mm)?

How big would the atom be?

10 meters!


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

If the nucleus were 10 cm in diameter, then…

the edge of the atom would be 1,000,000 cm or

10,000 meters or

6 miles away!

10 cm


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

If the nucleus were 10 cm in diameter, then…

the edge of the atom would be 1,000,000 cm or

10,000 meters or

6 miles away!

10 cm

SO, what would you see if you were on the nucleus?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • A whole lot of empty space…


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

What is in an atom?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Charge Location Mass


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Where is the mass located?

Charge Location Mass


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Charge Location Mass

What gives an atom its volume?


Back to radon

Back to Radon…

Atomic Number (protons), Z


How else can we write this

X

A

Z

How else can we write this?

X = Element Symbol from periodic table

A = Mass number (protons + neutrons)

Z = Number of Protons


How else can we write this1

X

A

Z

How else can we write this?

Try this for radon-222!

X = Element Symbol from periodic table

A = Mass number (protons + neutrons)

Z = Number of Protons


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

222

86

Rn

radon-222


For the quiz

For the quiz…

  • Calculators are OK. Cannot use any calculators with memory!


Quiz cont

Quiz Cont…

  • Please sit ONLY in the ‘dark’ colored seats!


Back to the atom

Back to the Atom…


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

222

86

Rn

radon-222

Is this needed?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

222

86

Rn

222Rn

radon-222

How about this?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

224

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222

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What would you see if you were on a nucleus

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These are the _______ of radon.

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

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What would you see if you were on a nucleus

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223

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These are the isotopes of radon.

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

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What would you see if you were on a nucleus

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What do these isotopes have in common?

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

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How do they differ?

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What would you see if you were on a nucleus

All the atoms of an element have the same number of ___________,

… but the isotopes of an element differ in the number of ___________.


Remember this

Remember This!!

All the atoms of an element have the same number of protons,

… but the isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons.


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

All the atoms of an element have the same number of protons,

… but the isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons.

How else are the isotopes similar?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

All the isotopes react in the same way.

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

All the isotopes react in the same way #1.

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O


Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Atomic Number (protons)

Atomic Mass


A word of caution

A Word of Caution…


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • The mass number (A) is NOT found on the periodic table

  • The periodic table shows us atomic mass!


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • Atomic Mass = Average of all of the Mass Numbers in found in nature


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

1

1

H

1H

hydrogen-1


Isotopes of hydrogen

Isotopes of hydrogen

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

1

1

2

1

3

1


Isotopes

Isotopes

1

1

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

2

1

3

1

How many neutrons does 3H have?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Which isotope is deuterium?

hydrogen

deuterium

p

p

n

n

n

p

tritium


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Which isotope is deuterium?

hydrogen

deuterium

p

p

n

Deuterium

Hydrogen

n

n

p

tritium

Tritium


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Since we are on hydrogen….

Does the little 2 after hydrogen have anything to do with isotopes?

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

H2 = hydrogen molecule

made up of 2 hydrogen atoms


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Is H2 an atom or a compound?

H2 = hydrogen molecule

made up of 2 hydrogen atoms


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Does the BIG 2 before hydrogen have anything to do with isotopes?

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • 2 H2 means 2 hydrogen (H2) molecules


Isotopes of hydrogen1

Isotopes of hydrogen

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

1

1

2

1

3

1


D 2 o vs h 2 o

D2O vs H2O

Does D2O freeze just like water?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Back to protons and neutrons …

Mass number

(A)

Atomic number

(Z)

2

1

H


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

ONE of the isotopes of _______.


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

ONE of the isotopes of chlorine.


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Try this on your own


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Remember!

Mass # = Atomic # + # neutrons


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

224

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223

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222

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And back to isotopes …

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

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Isotopes1

Isotopes

1) EVERY element on the periodic table has different isotopes.


Isotopes of hydrogen2

Isotopes of hydrogen

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

1

1

2

1

3

1


Carbon

Carbon

12

6

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6


Carbon1

Carbon

12

6

98.89%

1.11%

Trace

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6

What can people find out from isotopes?


When how did life start on earth

When / How did life start on Earth?

12

6

98.89%

1.11%

Trace

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6


When how did life start on earth1

When / How did life start on Earth?

12

6

98.89%

1.11%

Trace

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6

We’re talking over 4 billion years ago!


Remember

Remember…

All the isotopes react in the same way.


Carbon 12 vs carbon 13

Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13

Most living things depend on carbon for their livelihood…

Photosynthesis and respiration, for example


Carbon 12 vs carbon 131

Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13

Most living things depend on carbon for their livelihood…

But do they use all carbon isotopes equally?


Carbon 12 vs carbon 132

Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13

  • Living organisms can use 12C easier than 13C.

  • Remains of early organisms (fossil fuels, coal) tend to be rich in 12C while rocks are rich in 13C.

But do they use each isotope equally?


Isotopes2

Isotopes

Some elements have stable isotopes. Some elements have only radioactive isotopes.

Can you tell from the periodic table?


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

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223

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All radioactive!

No stable isotopes

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

Rn Rn Rn Rn

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What would you see if you were on a nucleus

  • Watch out for the word “stable”.

    Stable vs. radioactive

    Stable vs. chemically reactive


Isotopes3

Isotopes

3) Isotopes are naturally abundant in different concentrations


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

1H “hydrogen” 99.985%

2H deuterium0.015%

3H tritium trace amount


What would you see if you were on a nucleus

Was there any D2 or T2 in these balloons?

H2 H2 + O2


Isotopes4

Isotopes

4) Behave almost IDENTICALLY in chemical reactions


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

2 H2 + O2  2 H2O

2 D2 + O2  2 D2O

2 T2 + O2  2 T2O


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