The American Revolution. Eugenia langan Mater academy charter high school Hialeah gardens, florida with thanks to tony miller and susan pojer. Essential questions: Narrow: What were the causes of the American Revolution? What were the important events of the war? Broad:
The American Revolution
Mater academy charter high school
Hialeah gardens, florida
with thanks to tony miller and susanpojer
Revolutions: conservative and radical
Conservative: revolutionary leaders step into shoes of old leaders
Meet the new boss, same as the old boss!
Radical: total change in political / social structure –ex: sans-culottism
1. EMERGING AMERICAN IDENTITY (EVOLVING SINCE MID-17TH C!)
Letters from an American Farmer(PHD 4-9): “What is this American, this new man?”
OUR “FOUNDING FATHERS” WERE DEISTS, NOT CHRISTIANS!
N.B. TAXES HAD TO BE PAID IN SPECIE!
VIOLATORS IN ADMIRALTY
COURT (NO JURY)
ISSUE WRITS OF ASSISTANCE
JAMES OTIS – WEALTHY LAWYER/
POLITICIAN ARGUED V. WRITS/ STAMP ACT CONGRESS/ AUTHOR REVOLUTIONARY PAMPHLETS
POLITICIAN – REPRESENTED BOSTON IN ASSEMBLY! SUGAR ACT HURT ONLY N.E. DISTILLERS/ SMUGGLERS BUT ADAMS ARGUED AGAINST IT AS “TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”
1772 PORTRAIT BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY
Stamp Act (1765)
STAMP REQUIRED ON ALL DOCUMENTS – AFFECTED CITY PEOPLE MORE THAN OTHERS (ESP. PEOPLE ON FRONTIER!)
ABOVE – ACTUAL STAMPS, AND VERSION IN COLONIAL POLITICAL CARTOON
“Parliament assembled, had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the crown of Great Britain, in all cases whatsoever.”
CHARLES “CHAMPAGNE CHARLIE” TOWNSHEND, CHANCELLOR OF EXCHEQUER – THOUGHT COLONISTS WOULD ACCEPT
JOHN DICKINSON – IN HIS LETTERS FROM A PENNSYLVANIA FARMER (PHD 4-5) HE ARGUED THAT TOWNSHEND ACTS WERE “UNCONSTITUTIONAL” AND CALLED FOR NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS
HE WAS ONE OF THE WEALTHIEST MEN IN THE COLONIES AND A POLITICIAN
“The Bostonians Paying the Excise Man”
BRITISH POLITICAL CARTOON
DEPICTS SONS OF LIBERTY TARRING AND FEATHERING OF TAX COLLECTOR – ACTUAL EVENT
PAUL REVERE’S ENGRAVING OF BRITISH TROOPS ARRIVING IN BOSTON, 1768
Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)
BOSTON MOB STARTED IT
5 COLONISTS KILLED, INCLUDING RUNAWAY SLAVE CRISPUS ATTUCKS
SAM ADAMS NAMED IT “BOSTON MASSACRE”
CAUSE CÉLÉBRE THROUGHOUT COLONIES
COMPARE PAUL REVERE’S DRAWIMG OF “BOSTON MASSACRE (TOP) WITH 1856 DEPICTION. WHAT’S DIFFERENT? WHY?
PAUL REVERE BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY (1768)
LAWYER JOHN ADAMS, LEADING PATRIOT, DEFENDED THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WHO SHOT COLONISTS AT “BOSTON MASSACRE” AND GOT THEM OFF!
HE BECAME AMBASSADOR, VICE PRESIDENT AND PRESIDENT OF U.S.
The GaspéeIncident (1772)
RHODE ISLAND COLONISTS SACKED AND BURNED BRITISH REVENUE FRIGATE THAT RAN AGROUND NEAR PROVIDENCE
Committees of Correspondence
Tea Act (1773)
Boston Tea Party (1774)
SONS OF LIBERTY DUMPED 342 TONS OF TEA INTO BOSTON HARBOR
The Coercive or REPRESSIVE or IntolerableActs (1774)
BOSTON PORT ACT
MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNMENT ACT
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ACT
Quebec Act (1774)
MADE LAND SPECULATORS UNHAPPY
COLONISTS FEARED BRITAIN WAS TRYING TO RECRUIT FRENCH CANADIANS TO FIGHT ON ITS SIDE IF WAR OCCURRED
First Continental Congress (1774)
Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act?
CONGRESS DOESN’T GET TO
CARPENTERS’ HALL, PHILADELPHIA, WHERE CONGRESS MET
“The British Are Coming”
“Listen, my children, and you shall hear,
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere. . .” (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) (1861)
BUT REVERE WAS CAPTURED EN ROUTE!
WILLIAM DAWES WARNED THE MILITIAMEN!
19TH C. PAINTING OF BATTLE OF LEXINGTON
ACCORDING TO RALPH WALDO EMERSON IN “CONCORD HYMN”:
“BY THE RUDE BRIDGE THAT ARCHED THE FLOOD
THEIR FLAGS TO APRIL’S BREEZE UNFURLED,
HERE ONCE THE EMBATTLED FARMERS STOOD
AND FIRED THE SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD.”
CONTEMPORANEOUS MAP OF BATTLES, SIEGE
"...the apprehensions which now oppress our hearts with unspeakable grief, being once removed, your Majesty will find your faithful subjects on this continent ready and willing at all times...to assert and maintain the rights and interests of your Majesty and of our Mother Country."
The debate over independence
thomas Paine, Common Sense
IN THE EARLIEST ESSAYS IN THE AMERICAN CRISIS, PAINE ARGUED FOR INDEPENDENCE. HE CONTINUED TO PUBLISH THROUGHOUT THE WAR IN SUPPORT OF THE REVOLUTION
JULY 4, 1776, CONGRESS ADOPTS THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – FINALLY!
INDEPENDENCE HALL, PHILADELPHIA
BEN FRANKLIN, JOHN ADAMS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON WORKING ON THE DECLARATION – JEFFERSON WAS THE MAIN AUTHOR
PREAMBLE TO DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
Whose ideas are these?
AT THAT POINT, THOMAS PAINE WROTE INTHE AMERICAN CRISIS:
“These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.”
STATUE OF WASHINGTON IN WASHINGTON CIRCLE, D.C. AND PAINTING COMMEMORATE HIS VICTORY AT TRENTON
HIS LAST “HEROIC” VICTORY
NEXT SIGNIFICANT BATTLE = HOWE TOOK PHILADELPHIA SEPT. ’77
BUT WASHINGTON IS STILL C-IN-C
STATES JUST WOULDN’T COUGH UP MUCH $$ FOR TROOPS!
POPULAR IMAGES OF VALLEY FORGE
(N.B. WASHINGTON WAS PROBABLY A DEIST – HE REFUSED TO ATTEND CHURCH!)
WHAT HE SAID ABOUT VALLEY FORGE:
“Naked and starving as they areWe cannot enough admireThe incomparable Patience and Fidelity of the Soldiery”
RIGHT, “GENTLEMAN JOHNNY” BURGOYNE BY JOSHUA REYNOLDS
HORATIO GATES, BY GILBERT STUART
LEFT, THE SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE BY JOHN TRUMBULL, A MINOR BUT PROLIFIC AMERCAN PAINTER
IF Y0U DIDN’T READ THIS WHEN YOU WERE A LITTLE KID, YOU MISSED OUT! READ IT NOW!
Comte de Vergennes
Hoisted at the main mast by Continental Navy Commander in Chief Esek Hopkins (3 December 1775)
IT WORKED OUT OK FOR ARNOLD, NOT OK FOR MAJOR ANDRé (HE WAS HUNG)
WHO WAS WINNING?
The surrender of cornwallis by trumbull, of course
“THE WORLD TURNED UPSIDE DOWN”
American Delegation :