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The American Revolution. Eugenia langan Mater academy charter high school Hialeah gardens, florida with thanks to tony miller and susan pojer. Essential questions: Narrow: What were the causes of the American Revolution? What were the important events of the war? Broad:

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The american revolution

The American Revolution

Eugenia langan

Mater academy charter high school

Hialeah gardens, florida

with thanks to tony miller and susanpojer


The american revolution

  • Essential questions:

  • Narrow:

  • What were the causes of the American Revolution?

  • What were the important events of the war?

  • Broad:

  • to what extent was there an american identity by the time of the revolution?

  • how revolutionary was the american revolution?


The american revolution

Revolutions: conservative and radical

Conservative: revolutionary leaders step into shoes of old leaders

Meet the new boss, same as the old boss!

Radical: total change in political / social structure –ex: sans-culottism


Long range causes

Long- Range Causes

1. EMERGING AMERICAN IDENTITY (EVOLVING SINCE MID-17TH C!)

  • Hector St-Jean CrÈvecoeur’s

    Letters from an American Farmer(PHD 4-9): “What is this American, this new man?”


2 enlightenment ideals

2. Enlightenment Ideals

  • DEISM AND NATURAL LAW (BASED ON NEWTONIAN PHYSICS:

  • MAKER OF UNIVERSE = “MASTER MECHANIC” WHO ESTABLISHED NATURAL LAWS TO RUN IT AND LEFT IT ALONE AFTER THAT

    OUR “FOUNDING FATHERS” WERE DEISTS, NOT CHRISTIANS!


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  • ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHER MOST INFLUENTIAL ON AMERICA: JOHN LOCKE


Locke s concept of natural law rights and the social contract

LOCKE’S CONCEPT OF NATURAL LAW RIGHTS AND THE SOCIAL CONTRACT

  • IN HIS SECOND TREATISE ON GOVERNMENT LOCKE ARGUED:

  • HUMANS HAVE NATURAL RIGHTS TO LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY

  • 2) TO PROTECT THOSE RIGHTS, PEOPLE ENTER INTO SOCIAL CONTRACT AND ESTABLISH GOVERNMENT

  • 3) IF GOVERNMENT TAKES AWAY THOSE RIGHTS, PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO REVOLUTION


3 resentment of britain

3. RESENTMENT OF BRITAIN

  • FRENCH & INDIAN WAR/ PROCLAMATION OF 1763

  • END OF SALUTARY NEGLECT – INTERFERENCE IN COLONIAL AFFAIRS

  • TAXATION!


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  • “THE RIGHTS OF ENGLISHMEN”:

  • NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION

  • RIGHT TO ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES

  • RIGHT TO TRIALS BY JURY IN COMMON LAW COURTS, RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS

  • RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS


4 britain s tax laws protests against britain

4. BRITAIN’S TAX LAWS  PROTESTS AGAINST BRITAIN

  • Sugar Act (1764)

  • Stamp Act (1765)

  • Townshend Duties (1767)

  • Tea Act (1772)

N.B. TAXES HAD TO BE PAID IN SPECIE!


Colonial reaction to tax laws

Colonial Reaction TO TAX LAWS

  • Resistance to British authority

  • Boycotts

  • CONGRESSES, Petitions to Parliament and the Crown

  • Riots and the Threat of Violence


Sugar act 1764

SUGAR ACT (1764)

  • FIRST EXPLICIT TAX LAW

  • REDUCED DUTY ON SUGAR IMPORTED FROM NON-BRITISH COLONIES

  • PROVIDED FOR TRIALS OF

    VIOLATORS IN ADMIRALTY

    COURT (NO JURY)

  • AUTHORIZED COURTS TO

    ISSUE WRITS OF ASSISTANCE

    (SEARCH WARRANTS)

JAMES OTIS – WEALTHY LAWYER/

POLITICIAN ARGUED V. WRITS/ STAMP ACT CONGRESS/ AUTHOR REVOLUTIONARY PAMPHLETS


Father of the revolution

“Father of the Revolution”

POLITICIAN – REPRESENTED BOSTON IN ASSEMBLY! SUGAR ACT HURT ONLY N.E. DISTILLERS/ SMUGGLERS BUT ADAMS ARGUED AGAINST IT AS “TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”

1772 PORTRAIT BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY


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Stamp Act (1765)

STAMP REQUIRED ON ALL DOCUMENTS – AFFECTED CITY PEOPLE MORE THAN OTHERS (ESP. PEOPLE ON FRONTIER!)

ABOVE – ACTUAL STAMPS, AND VERSION IN COLONIAL POLITICAL CARTOON


Colonial reaction to stamp act

COLONIAL REACTION TO STAMP ACT

  • NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS = Boycotts OF BRITISH GOODS

  • VIOLENT Protests - (SONS OF LIBERTY) – EXAMPLE = MOB BROKE INTO, VANDALIZED OF MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNOR HUTCHINSON

  • DID SAM ADAMS STIR UP THE MOB? SOMEONE DID!

  • NON-VIOLENT PROTEST – STAMP ACT CONGRESS = major step  union


Resolutions of the stamp act congress 1765

Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress (1765)

  • 1st. That His Majesty's subjects in these colonies owe the same allegiance to the crown of Great Britain that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body, the Parliament of Great Britain.

  • 2d. That His Majesty's liege subjects in these colonies are entitled to all the inherent rights and privileges of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain.

  • 3d. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted rights of Englishmen, that no taxes should be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.


Repeal and declaratory act 1766

Repeal and Declaratory Act (1766)

“Parliament assembled, had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the crown of Great Britain, in all cases whatsoever.”


Townshend revenue acts 1767

Townshend Revenue Acts (1767)

  • IMPOSED IMPORT DUTIES ON LEAD, PAINT, GLASS, PAPER AND TEA (BRITISH GOODS – PURE TAX!)

  • THIS HURT EVERYONE SOME – BUT MOSTLY PEOPLE WHO COULD AFFORD THOSE THINGS!

CHARLES “CHAMPAGNE CHARLIE” TOWNSHEND, CHANCELLOR OF EXCHEQUER – THOUGHT COLONISTS WOULD ACCEPT

“INDIRECT TAX”


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JOHN DICKINSON – IN HIS LETTERS FROM A PENNSYLVANIA FARMER (PHD 4-5) HE ARGUED THAT TOWNSHEND ACTS WERE “UNCONSTITUTIONAL” AND CALLED FOR NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS

HE WAS ONE OF THE WEALTHIEST MEN IN THE COLONIES AND A POLITICIAN


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“The Bostonians Paying the Excise Man”

BRITISH POLITICAL CARTOON

DEPICTS SONS OF LIBERTY TARRING AND FEATHERING OF TAX COLLECTOR – ACTUAL EVENT


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PAUL REVERE’S ENGRAVING OF BRITISH TROOPS ARRIVING IN BOSTON, 1768


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Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)

BOSTON MOB STARTED IT

5 COLONISTS KILLED, INCLUDING RUNAWAY SLAVE CRISPUS ATTUCKS

SAM ADAMS NAMED IT “BOSTON MASSACRE”

 CAUSE CÉLÉBRE THROUGHOUT COLONIES


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COMPARE PAUL REVERE’S DRAWIMG OF “BOSTON MASSACRE (TOP) WITH 1856 DEPICTION. WHAT’S DIFFERENT? WHY?


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PAUL REVERE BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY (1768)


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LAWYER JOHN ADAMS, LEADING PATRIOT, DEFENDED THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WHO SHOT COLONISTS AT “BOSTON MASSACRE” AND GOT THEM OFF!

HE BECAME AMBASSADOR, VICE PRESIDENT AND PRESIDENT OF U.S.


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The GaspéeIncident (1772)

RHODE ISLAND COLONISTS SACKED AND BURNED BRITISH REVENUE FRIGATE THAT RAN AGROUND NEAR PROVIDENCE


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Committees of Correspondence

  • SAM ADAMS’S IDEA

  • PURPOSE = WARN NEIGHBORING COLONIES ABOUT INCIDENTS WITH BRITISH

  • BY 1773, EVERY COLONY HAD ONE AS PART OF COLONIAL LEGISLATURE

  • STEP TO UNION – AND SEDITIOUS!


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Tea Act (1773)

  • REDUCED TAX ON BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY TEA

  • MEAN CHEAPER TEA FOR COLONISTS

  • HURT N.E. TEA MERCHANTS WHO SOLD DUTCH TEA


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Boston Tea Party (1774)

SONS OF LIBERTY DUMPED 342 TONS OF TEA INTO BOSTON HARBOR 


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The Coercive or REPRESSIVE or IntolerableActs (1774)

BOSTON PORT ACT

MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNMENT ACT

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ACT

QUEBEC ACT

Lord North


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Quebec Act (1774)

MADE LAND SPECULATORS UNHAPPY

COLONISTS FEARED BRITAIN WAS TRYING TO RECRUIT FRENCH CANADIANS TO FIGHT ON ITS SIDE IF WAR OCCURRED


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First Continental Congress (1774)

  • 55 delegates from 12 colonies (ALL BUT GEORGIA)

  • UNICAMERAL

  • 1 VOTE/ COLONY

Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act?

.

CONGRESS DOESN’T GET TO

DECIDE!

CARPENTERS’ HALL, PHILADELPHIA, WHERE CONGRESS MET


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  • THE WAR BEGINS

  • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD, APRIL 19, 1775

  • 700 BRITISH REGULARS SET OUT FROM BOSTON TO TAKE ARSENAL OF COLONIAL MILITIA AT CONCORD

  • COLONISTS KNEW IT WOULD HAPPEN ADVANCE – JOHN ADAMS, JOHN HANCOCK, PAUL REVERE, ET AL. WERE IN CONCORD THE WEEK BEFORE – BUT THEY DIDN’T KNOW WHEN BRITISH WOULD ATTACK


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“The British Are Coming”

“Listen, my children, and you shall hear,

Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere. . .” (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) (1861)

BUT REVERE WAS CAPTURED EN ROUTE!

WILLIAM DAWES WARNED THE MILITIAMEN!


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  • 77 MILITIAMEN MET REDCOATS AT LEXINGTON, 8 KILLED, FELL BACK TOWARD BOSTON

  • AT CONCORD, 250 MILITIAMEN TURNED BACK 3 COMPANIES OF REDCOATS AT OLD NORTH BRIDGE


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19TH C. PAINTING OF BATTLE OF LEXINGTON


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ACCORDING TO RALPH WALDO EMERSON IN “CONCORD HYMN”:

“BY THE RUDE BRIDGE THAT ARCHED THE FLOOD

THEIR FLAGS TO APRIL’S BREEZE UNFURLED,

HERE ONCE THE EMBATTLED FARMERS STOOD

AND FIRED THE SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD.”


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  • AFTER COLONIAL VICTORY AT CONCORD,

  • MILITIAMEN (JOINED BY ABOUT 3,500 MORE) CHASE SURVIVING REDCOATS BACK TO BOSTON AND LAY SEIGE TO THE CITY!

  • SEIGE LASTS 11 MONTHS . . .


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CONTEMPORANEOUS MAP OF BATTLES, SIEGE


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  • MEANWHILE, THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS CONVENED, MAY 1775 – IMMEDIATELY DUBBED MILITIA THE “CONTINENTAL ARMY” AND APPOINTED GEORGE WASHINGTON GENERAL C-IN-C

  • JULY 8, 1775 CONGRESS ADOPTED

  • THE OLIVE BRANCH PETITION:

"...the apprehensions which now oppress our hearts with unspeakable grief, being once removed, your Majesty will find your faithful subjects on this continent ready and willing at all times...to assert and maintain the rights and interests of your Majesty and of our Mother Country."


The american revolution

The debate over independence

thomas Paine, Common Sense

IN THE EARLIEST ESSAYS IN THE AMERICAN CRISIS, PAINE ARGUED FOR INDEPENDENCE. HE CONTINUED TO PUBLISH THROUGHOUT THE WAR IN SUPPORT OF THE REVOLUTION


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JULY 4, 1776, CONGRESS ADOPTS THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – FINALLY!


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INDEPENDENCE HALL, PHILADELPHIA


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BEN FRANKLIN, JOHN ADAMS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON WORKING ON THE DECLARATION – JEFFERSON WAS THE MAIN AUTHOR


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PREAMBLE TO DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

Whose ideas are these?


The american revolution

  • the declaration continues with a list of complaints against king george iii, including

  • he taxed colonists without representation

  • he quartered soldiers in colonists’ homes

  • he dissolved colonial legislatures

  • he turned “the merciless Indian Savages” against colonists on the frontiers

  • Read the declaration!


The american revolution

  • UNDER THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS (1689), THE KING WAS A FIGUREHEAD

  • PARLIAMENT IS SOVEREIGN AND THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER IS THE PRIME MINISTER

GEORGE III

  • WHY DID THE AUTHORS OF THE DECLARATION BLAME EVERYTHING ON THE KING?


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  • ABIGAIL ADAMS:

  • SHE WROTE TO HER HUSBAND JOHN WHEN HE WAS WORKING ON THE DECLARATION, “REMEMBER THE LADIES.”

  • HE WROTE BACK SAYING MEN WOULD NOT BE RULED BY “THE DESPOTISM OF THE PETTICOAT.”

  • SHE WROTE BACK TO HIM, “REMEMBER THAT ARBITRARY POWER IS LIKE MOST OTHER THINGS THAT ARE VERY HARD, LIABLE TO BE BROKEN.”

  • (PHD 5-5)


The american revolution

THE WAR:

  • 1775 – 1781 (THE FIGHTING)

  • 1775 – 1783 (FROM START TO TREATY OF PARIS)

  • BATTLES TO KNOW:

  • LEXINGTON AND CONCORD, APRIL 19, 1775

  • FORT TICONDEROGA, MAY 10, 1775

  • SEIGE OF BOSTON APRIL 19, 1775 – MARCH 17, 1776 -- INCLUDES BUNKER HILL, JUNE 17, 1775

  • NEW YORK/ NEW JERSEY, AUGUST – OCTOBER 1776

  • TRENTON, DECEMBER 26, 1776

  • SARATOGA, JUNE – OCTOBER 1777

  • YORKTOWN, OCTOBER 19, 1781


Revolutionary war

Revolutionary War:

  • Great Britain

    • Advantages

      • Large economy based on world empire.

      • Well established government - Constitutional Monarchy.

      • Professional Army

      • Large Royal Navy (Although challenged for supremacy by French Navy.)

    • Disadvantages

      • Long Lines of Communication

      • Fighting on “Foreign” Soil

  • American Colonies

    • Advantages

      • Fighting on “Home Turf”

      • Ready market of resources

    • Disadvantages

      • Weak government: Continental Congress.

      • Economy designed to support Britain in mercantilist system.

      • Disunity - Loyalists or Tories make up one third of population. AND ONLY ABOUT 45% SUPPORT REVOLUTION


The american revolution

  • FRANKLIN’S CARTOON WAS RE-CIRCULATED DURING THE REVOLUTION

  • FAILED TO PERSUADE ABOUT 1/3 OF COLONISTS, WHO WERE LOYALISTS - MOSTLY IN THE SOUTH

  • ALSO FAILED TO PERSUADE EVEN PATRIOTS TO SUPPORT WAR WITH $$ - STATE LEGISLATURES STINGY THROUGHOUT MUCH OF WAR


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  • WHY WAS THE SOUTH LARGELY LOYAL TO BRITAIN?

  • THE SOUTH WAS ABSOLUTELY DEPENDENT ON EXPORTING ITS CASH CROPS TO BRITAIN!

  • THIS WILL BECOME A SOURCE OF SECTIONAL CONFLICT AS THE NORTH BECOMES INCREASINGLY INDUSTRIALIZED  CIVIL WAR!


Strategies

Strategies:

  • British

    • Command of the Sea

      • Blockade American ports.

      • Transport troops to areas of rebellion (mobility).

    • Hudson River Valley

      • Cut off New England from middle and southern colonies.

      • Rally Loyalist Support in South

  • American

    • War of Attrition: Wear down British forces.

    • Diplomacy

      • Gain European allies with large navies - France.

    • Commerce Raiding/ Privateering


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  • CAPTURE OF FT. TICONDEROGA BY ETHAN ALLEN AND THE GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS W/ BENEDICT ARNOLD, MAY 10, 1775

  • BRITISH COMMANDER HANDED OVER THE FORT W/O FIGHTING

  • SIGNIFICANCE: ARTILLERY AT FT. TICONDEROGA  BOSTON (WILL ALLOW WASHINGTON TO TAKE CITY)


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  • SEIGE OF BOSTON – APRIL 19, 1775 – MARCH 17, 1776

  • BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, JUNE 17, 1775:

  • WAVES OF REDCOATS, UNDER BRITISH GENERAL HOWE ATTACK 1200 AMERICANS IN FORTIFICATIONS ON BREED’S HILL

  • BRITISH SUFFERED 1,024 CASUALTIES (INCLUDING 62 OFFICERS – ABOUT 224 DEATHS) PUSHED AMERICANS BACK TO BUNKER HILL

  • PYRRHIC VICTORY FOR BRITISH  STALEMATE AFTER HIGH CASUALTIES

  • SHOWED COLONISTS COULD DEFEND AGAINST BRITS.

  • (REMEMBER, OLIVE BRANCH PETITION IS A MONTH LATER!)


Breed s hill

Breed's Hill


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  • EARLY MARCH, 1776 – AMERICAN COLONEL HENRY KNOX ARRIVES IN BOSTON WITH THE ARTILLERY CAPTURED FROM FT. TICONDEROGA 

  • MAY 17, 1776 - WASHINGTON DEFEATS BRITISH UNDER HOWE AT BOSTON, BRITISH EVACUATE VIA SEA


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  • BUT THEN THE TIDE TURNS:

  • NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY

  • HOWE AND CORNWALLIS LANDS ON LONG ISLAND – AUGUST 27, 1776 BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND (LARGEST OF WAR)

  • CORNWALLIS DRIVES WASHINGTON BACK FIRST TO BROOKLYN, THEN MANHATTAN, THEN ACROSS NEW JERSEY AND ACROSS DELAWARE TO PHILADELPHIA BY DECEMBER


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CORNWALLIS


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AT THAT POINT, THOMAS PAINE WROTE INTHE AMERICAN CRISIS:

“These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.”


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  • CHRISTMAS, 1776 – WASHINGTON CROSSED DELAWARE FOR SNEAK ATTACK ON BRITISH WINTER GARRISON AT TRENTON


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  • TRENTON, DECEMBER 26, 1776

  • EARLY-MORNING SNEAK ATTACK  WASHINGTON’S MEN CAPTURE ABOUT 1,000 VERY SURPRISED HESSIAN MERCENARIES AT GARRISON

  • CORNWALLIS HEADED TOWARD AMERICAN TROOPS  JANUARY 3, 1777 DECISIVE AMERICAN VICTORY AT PRINCETON

  • SIGNIFICANCE = NOW MORE AMERICANS THINK VICTORY IS POSSIBLE – STATES BEGIN TO COUGH UP A LITTLE $$ -- BUT NOT MUCH!

  • (CONTINENTAL CONGRESS BORROWED TO FUND WAR – SO DID SOME NORTHERN STATES)


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STATUE OF WASHINGTON IN WASHINGTON CIRCLE, D.C. AND PAINTING COMMEMORATE HIS VICTORY AT TRENTON

WHY TRENTON?

HIS LAST “HEROIC” VICTORY

NEXT SIGNIFICANT BATTLE = HOWE TOOK PHILADELPHIA SEPT. ’77

BUT WASHINGTON IS STILL C-IN-C


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  • VALLEY FORGE

  • WASHINGTON AND 12,000 CONTINENTAL SOLDIERS SPEND WINTER OF 1777-1788 AT VALLEY FORGE (ABOUT 20 MI. FROM PHILADELPHIA)

  • SHORTAGES OF FOOD, UNIFORMS, SHOES, UNSANITARY CONDITIONS  2,500 MEN DIED OF DISEASES AND STARVATION OVER THE WINTER

STATES JUST WOULDN’T COUGH UP MUCH $$ FOR TROOPS!


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POPULAR IMAGES OF VALLEY FORGE

(N.B. WASHINGTON WAS PROBABLY A DEIST – HE REFUSED TO ATTEND CHURCH!)

WHAT HE SAID ABOUT VALLEY FORGE:

“Naked and starving as they areWe cannot enough admireThe incomparable Patience and Fidelity of the Soldiery”


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  • THE TURNING POINT: SARATOGA (JUNE-OCTOBER 1777)

  • BRITISH, UNDER BURGOYNE, SET OUT TO TAKE HUDSON VALLEY – PATHWAY FOR INVASION FROM CANADA

  • DECISIVE AMERICAN VICTORY UNDER GENERALS HORATIO GATES AND BENEDICT ARNOLD

    • ONEIDA INDIANS FOUGHT FOR AMERICANS; REST OF IROQUOIS FOUGHT FOR BRITAIN

  • BURGOYNE AND THOUSANDS OF BRITISH TROOPS (INCLUDING HESSIANS) SURRENDERED, OCTOBER 17, 1777


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RIGHT, “GENTLEMAN JOHNNY” BURGOYNE BY JOSHUA REYNOLDS

HORATIO GATES, BY GILBERT STUART

LEFT, THE SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE BY JOHN TRUMBULL, A MINOR BUT PROLIFIC AMERCAN PAINTER


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  • SARATOGA IS THE TURNING POINT BECAUSE IT PERSUADED FRANCE (AND SPAIN AMERICANS COULD WIN. FRANCE SENT $$$$$ AND ENTERED THE WAR ON AMERICAN SIDE, SPAIN SENT $$

  • BEN FRANKLIN HAD BEEN IN PARIS SINCE 1776 AS AMBASSADOR , TRYING TO PERSUADE FRANCE TO BACK AMERICAN – COULDN’T GET MEETING WITH LOUIS XVI – BUT HE WAS VERY POPULAR IN PARIS AS “A NATURAL MAN” AND SCIENTIST

  • AFTER SARATOGA, LOUIS SUMMONED FRANKLIN TO VERSAILLES – “AND THE REST IS HISTORY” -- GREAT FOR U.S., DISASTROUS FOR LOUIS!


The enlightened natural man in paris

THE ENLIGHTENED NATURAL MAN IN PARIS


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IF Y0U DIDN’T READ THIS WHEN YOU WERE A LITTLE KID, YOU MISSED OUT! READ IT NOW!


Lafayette

Lafayette

Rochambeau

Franco-American Alliance

Comte de Vergennes


Franco american treaty of 1778

Franco-American Treaty of 1778

  • Permanent, defensive alliance

  • France agreed to fight until U.S. Independence achieved

  • NO Separate negotiations WITH BRITAIN


Why we needed france we had no real navy but we had navy flags

WHY WE NEEDED FRANCE: WE HAD NO REAL NAVYBUT WE HAD NAVY FLAGS!

Hoisted at the main mast by Continental Navy Commander in Chief Esek Hopkins (3 December 1775)


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  • “BUMPS IN THE ROAD” -- POLITICS

  • “CONWAY CABAL,” 1777-78 - AMERICAN GENERALS DISSATISFIED WITH WASHINGTON’S COMMAND TRIED TO GET HIM REPLACED BY HORATIO GATES -- DIDN’T WORK – WASHINGTON TOO POPULAR W/ FRIENDS IN CONGRESS

  • BENEDICT ARNOLD’S ATTEMPT TO TURN WEST POINT OVER TO BRITISH, 1780 – HE WAS PASSED OVER FOR PROMOTIONS, CONGRESS TRIED TO SHAKE HIM DOWN FOR $$

IT WORKED OUT OK FOR ARNOLD, NOT OK FOR MAJOR ANDRé (HE WAS HUNG)


Northern theatre who was winning

NorthernTheatreWHO WAS WINNING?


Southern theatre

Southern Theatre

WHO WAS WINNING?


Guerilla warfare in the carolinas

Guerilla Warfare in the Carolinas

Francis Marion

thomasSumter

Andrew Pickens


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  • THE END – YORKTOWN , OCTOBER 19, 1781– A LUCKY BREAK

  • IT HAD BEEN TOUCH AND GO IN THE SOUTHERN THEATER

  • EX. SPRING 1781: COWPENS AMERICANS, GUILFORD COURTHOUSE BRITISH

  • BUT CORNWALLIS (NOW C-IN-C) HEADED TOWARD COAST AND LET HIMSELF GET TRAPPED ON YORKTOWN CAPE

  • WASHINGTON AND ROCHAMBEAU MARCH THEIR ARMIES FROM NY TO VIRGINIA


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  • ABOUT 20,000 COMBINED AMERICAN/ FRENCH TROOPS HAD ABOUT 9,000 BRITISH TROOPS TRAPPED ON THE CAPE

  • IF BRITISH NAVY HAD ARRIVED FIRST, CORNWALLIS AND HIS MEN WOULD HAVE ESCAPED TO CONTINUE FIGHTING

  • FRENCH FLEET UNDER DE GRASSE GOT THERE FIRST  CORNWALLIS HAD TO SURRENDER


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The surrender of cornwallis by trumbull, of course

“THE WORLD TURNED UPSIDE DOWN”


Treaty of paris 1783

Treaty of Paris, 1783

American Delegation :

Benjamin Franklin

John Adams

John Jay

Henry Laurens


Terms of treaty of paris 1783

terms of Treaty of Paris, 1783

  • British Recognition of United States

  • U.S. Granted Territory East of Mississippi

  • Loyalist Property to be Returned

  • Pre-War Colonial Debts to be Paid

  • US Fishing Rights off Grand Banks

  • Florida Returned to Spain by Separate Treaty


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  • COSTS OF WAR:

  • CASUALTIES: 50,000 , INC. 25,000 DEATHS (MIL. & CIV. COMBINED)

  • WAR DEBT:

  • FEDERAL - $37 MILLION

  • STATES -- $114 MILLION

  • AND THERE OUR TROUBLES BEGIN . . .


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