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Automatic Person Location Technologies and Solutions for Public Safety Users. Peter Hudson Sepura. 28.10.2005. Location Update. Introduction. Market requirements for APLS for Public Safety users The command and control requirements of an APLS solution Review of location technologies

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Automatic person location technologies and solutions for public safety users

Automatic Person LocationTechnologies and Solutions for Public Safety Users

Peter Hudson

Sepura

28.10.2005


Introduction

Location

Update

Introduction

  • Market requirements for APLS for Public Safety users

  • The command and control requirements of an APLS solution

  • Review of location technologies

  • TETRA services used for location solutions

  • Future of APLS enabled products for public safety users


Market requirement drivers apls
Market Requirement Drivers – APLS

  • FCC E911 Mandate in the US

    • Call centres

    • Terminal or network implemented solutions

      • 50 - 100 metre accuracy for at least 67% of cases

      • 150 - 300 metre accuracy for at least 95% of cases

  • EU E112 Mandate in Europe

    • Still not implemented !

    • No defined accuracy specified !

      Both systems proposing using either TDOA or GPS location techniques

      Many emergency services now mandating APLS


Location technology public safety
Location Technology - Public Safety

  • Know where someone is: save LIFE.

  • Better allocation of resources, prompt reaction to an Emergency: save TIME.

  • Better Control of the fleet: save MONEY

  • Improve job satisfaction: save CHURN


Solution influencing factors
Solution Influencing Factors

  • Price

  • Accuracy verses coverage

  • Ergonomics

  • Power consumption

  • Timing of solution to reach the market

  • Standard solution or proprietary ?

  • Can the solution be supported by TETRA ?


Command control requirements
Command & Control Requirements

  • Effective management

  • Requirements differ from AVLS

  • User needs to feel unthreatened by APLS

  • Updated positioning details fixed to various duties or skills

  • Linking of various systems/databases to provide officer with advance warning of possible dangers





Importance of knowing location

HELP!....

Which street are you in? 

Importance of knowing location

High

Accuracy

Low

Accuracy


Location solutions performance
Location Solutions & Performance

  • Low accuracy, low cost solutions

    • Time difference of arrival

    • Enhanced observed time difference

  • Medium accuracy, medium cost solutions

    • Standard GPS

    • Assisted GPS

    • Low signal strength GPS

  • High accuracy, high cost solutions

    • Differential GPS

    • Combinations of Solutions


Low accuracy low cost terminal solutions
Low accuracy, low cost (terminal) solutions

  • Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA)

    • very costly to implement in the network

    • accuracy of location is +/- 500 metres

  • Enhanced Observed Time Difference (EOTD)

    • no base station support now claimed

    • accuracy of location is 200m - 2km

  • Both technologies

    • have good indoor/urban canyon penetration, but with very poor accuracy - a general show stopping issue for network based solutions where location accuracy could be critical

    • are bandwidth hungry therefore not suitable for TETRA


Network based solutions
Network Based Solutions

GIS or

Mapping

Application

LMU

LMU

TETRA

Radio tower

Radio tower

Gateway

GIS or

Mapping

Application

C&C

Server

Network Based Solutions

Current Accuracy = 200m - 2km

Future Accuracy =100m - 500m

LMU

LMU

Radio tower


Medium accuracy medium cost solutions
Medium accuracy, medium cost solutions

  • Standard GPS

    • time to first acquisition (fix) is typically 3 mins

    • >30 metres accuracy, no indoors or urban canyon coverage

  • Assisted GPS

    • time to first acquisition is typically 30 secs

    • >30 metres accuracy

  • Low Signal Strength GPS (high sensitivity)

    • time to first acquisition is typically 45 secs

    • <30 metres accuracy

    • indoors/urban canyons

  • All the above have a location accuracy of <10 metres for 95% of cases in open space


Gps how does it work
GPS How Does It Work ?

  • To enable a location measurement to be made, the GPS receiver needs to know were the satellites are

  • It receives two kinds of data from the satellites;

    • Almanac data

    • Ephemeris data

  • Once the receiver has obtained this information it needs to synchronise time before an accurate location measurement can be made.

  • By knowing time taken to receive signal from each satellite, the receiver can determine exactly how far away it is.


  • Gps based solutions
    GPS based solutions

    Mapping Server

    Mapping

    Application

    C&C

    Firewall

    C & C LAN

    TETRA

    Network

    TETRA gateway

    Dispatch workstations

    SDS

    C & C Servers

    Radio tower

    Base station


    High accuracy high cost solutions
    High accuracy, high cost solutions

    • Differential GPS

      • open space accuracy <10 metres off

      • expensive to implement with land based differential base stations required and regular network broadcasts

      • Network bandwidth hungry

    • Solution Combinations (GPS+Beacons+Odometer)

      • accuracy anywhere between 0 - 10 metres

      • very expensive beacon network required to support this


    Gps high accuracy

    SDS

    Beacon

    Receiver

    GPS

    Odometer

    GPS - High accuracy

    TETRA

    Network

    GIS or

    Mapping

    Application

    TETRA

    Radio tower

    Radio tower

    Gateway

    GIS or

    Mapping

    GPS

    Application

    Server

    C&C

    GPS Station

    Radio tower

    Radio tower


    Data over network size of problem
    Data over network - Size of problem!

    Typically, position report messages could carry some or all of the following:

    • Heading

    • Fix type

    • Confidence Level

    • Status

    • Fix Reason

    • Terminal ID

    • Date

    • Time

    • Latitude

    • Longitude

    • Altitude

    • Speed

    Amount of message traffic generated by APLS systems is much larger than for AVLS


    Tetra services for apls
    TETRA services for APLS

    TETRA services allow use of SDS messaging for transmission of GPS data:-

    • EN 300 392-2: TETRA (Voice plus Data (V+D), part 2: Air Interface, v2.3.2

      • SDS4 and SDS-TL delivers variable length messages to 2047 bits(255 bytes)

      • GPS location data is provided in the NMEA formats, GLL, GSA, GGA etc.

      • Typical GLL mesage could contain as much as 48 bytes of data!

  • Location Information Protocol –TS 100 392-18-1 v1.1.1 Jan 2005

    • Specifies the effective use of network by using compact message formats

    • Typical message (compared to GLL) is 11 bytes long!


  • Future of apls tetra terminals
    Future of APLS & TETRA Terminals

    Technology Influenced Solutions

    • Continuing integration of IC’s and components enables space saving in handsets and is an opportunity to integrate location devices like GPS.

    • The European Galileo system should be operational by 2008 and this is supposed to perform better than the existing US DoD GPS system.


    “GPS” Performance - Trend

    Galileo

    L1, L2 + L5 Frequency

    (+ Galileo?)

    Clear Sky

    Under Foliage

    Wooden

    Building

    Urban Canyon

    Single Storey

    Brick Building

    Multi Storey

    Concrete building

    Underground?

    High Quality Receiver

    Future GPS ?

    High Quality

    Hand Held

    Receiver

    High sensitivity GPS

    Other Sensors – e.g. Gyroscope, Accelerometers

    2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010………………………….. 2015 2020 2030


    Benefits of gps in public safety
    Benefits of GPS in Public Safety

    • Enhances user safety

      • Lone worker + Emergency Button + GPS

      • Accurate Location

    • Improves resource usage

      • Improves response times

      • Selection of most appropriate resource

      • Reduce wasted resource

    • Improves reporting accuracy

      • Knowing precisely where an incident took place

    • Improves user job satisfaction

      • User feels safer and more confident


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