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Cells and Systems Topic 6-7. By: Sam Wells, Dimpi Shah and Manvi Thakore . Driving Question.

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Cells and Systems Topic 6-7

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Cells and systems topic 6 7

Cells and Systems Topic 6-7

By: Sam Wells, Dimpi Shah and Manvi Thakore


Driving question

Driving Question

The dawn of the 21st century has helped and hindered our health. It has helped us in that are more medicine and technology to keep us healthy. The many new technologies can monitor and improve our health. New medicine helps more ailments, and can greaten the lifespan. On the other hand, there are many more pollutants, such as smoking and CO2 fumes. The widespread fast and processed food is also negative, making fatty and salty food cheap and available. Many people are overweight or obese and this extremely increases the risk of many diseases. All and all, this century is both good and bad for our health.


Cells and systems topic 6 7

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


The digestive system

The Digestive System

Our Digestive System is where our food is broken into smaller pieces which can be used by cells. There are many different parts in the digestive system which is involved in the Digestion process. Some of the parts are:

  • Mouth

  • Salivary Glands

  • Esophagus

  • Stomach

  • Liver

  • Gall Bladder

  • Pancreas

  • Small Intestine

  • Large Intestine

  • Rectum

  • Anus


The digestive system con

The Digestive System con…

Digestion is a really important process in the body because what you eat and drink is broken down into little pieces so the body can use those tiny pieces for energy and build and provide energy to the cells. Digestion begins in the mouth by chewing and swallowing food and ends up at the small intestine.


Parts in the digestive system

Parts in The Digestive System

The parts in the digestive system are:

  • Mouth - When food enters your mouth, your teeth and tongue helps us chew and chop the food into little pieces so it can be small enough to enter the throat. Saliva softens the food so it can be easily swallowed.

  • Salivary Glands – Salivary Glands are important part of the beginning of Digestion. They moisten the mouth and tongue. They lubricate food so it can be rolled into soft mass which can be easily swallowed. It also dissolves parts of food which stimulates our taste buds. In other words it is a cleansing action in our mouth. There are 3 pairs of salivary glands in our mouth. The 3 pairs of salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual. Saliva contains a carbohydrase enzyme called amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates.


Parts in the digestive system con

Parts in The Digestive System con…

  • Esophagus – The main function of the Esophagus is to transport food, liquids and saliva from the mouth to the stomach. The muscle movement in the esophagus which helps the food move to the stomach to help it digest is called peristalsis.

  • Stomach - Stomach is found between the Esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach muscles in the stomach physically break down the food. Stomach lets off acids which can chemically break down food. The stomach releases the food into the small intestine. The stomach contains four different parts. The four different parts are the cardia, fundus, corpus, and pylorus.

  • Liver – The main function of the liver is to process fats and nutrient rich liquefied foods from the small intestine by the production and excretion of bile. Bile is a mixture of bile acids and pigments that work together to break down fat. It also produces sugars from proteins and fatty substances. The liver converts poisons into which can safely exit the human body. The liver digests fats and blood proteins.

  • Gall Bladder – The gall bladder looks like a pouch shaped organ. It takes bile from the liver and stores it. When food is digested the gall bladder releases bile and transports it into the small intestine.


Parts in the digestive system con1

Parts in the Digestive System con…

  • Pancreas – Pancreas produces the enzymes and hormones which help break down food like proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Pancreas produces and delivers digestive juices which helps in digestion through the tube called the pancreatic duct to the upper part of the small intestine.

  • Small Intestine – The main job of the small intestine is to break down some of the food with the help of bile, pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine and absorb most of the nutrients from the food. The small intestine is usually 20 feet long. The small intestine is parted into three segments. The three different segments are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

  • Large Intestine – The large intestine absorbs the water from the foods and parts of the food that are not digest is produced into solidwastes, which is called colon. The large intestine is about 5 feet long.


Parts in the digestive system con2

Parts in the Digestive System con…

  • Rectum – Wastes produced by the large intestine is stored in the rectum. The rectum is 6-8 inches long.

  • Anus – The anus is the last part in the digestive system. Anus is 2 inch canal which allows waste to exit from the body.


Cells and systems topic 6 7

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


The respiratory system

The Respiratory System

The main organs of the respiratory system are the lungs. They exchange gases, the carbon dioxide being collected by red blood cells then exhaled and oxygen inhaled which then travel, again via blood cells, to the cells. The

trachea, more commonly known as the

windpipe, is used to filter the air that then

enters the bronchi. The bronchi are two

tubes that diverge at the trachea and go

through the bronchioles, the even smaller

branches of the bronchi. The alveoli are

small air sacs that are attached to the

bronchial tubes.


The respiratory system con

The Respiratory System con…

The alveoli inflate and deflate as we breathe, and are used in the exchange of oxygen. The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a tube-shaped organ that holds the vocal cords. It allows us to speak, and works to help us swallow and breathe. Finally, the diaphragm is a dome-shaped wall of muscle at the bottom of our lungs that expands and contracts as we breathe. It is also the major muscle used for breathing.


Cells and systems topic 6 7

THE ORGANIZATION AND BENIEFITS OF A MULTI – CELLULAR


Benefits of being a multi cellular

Benefits of being a Multi – Cellular

There are many reasons which states the benefits of being a multi – cellular:

  • Multi – cellular organisms can live in a variety of environments.

  • Multi – cellular organisms are able to grow very large.

  • Multi – cellular organisms can gain energy from many different kinds of food.

  • Cells in the multi – cellular organisms work more efficiently than cells in unicellular organisms.


Organization in a multi cellular organisms

Organization in a Multi – cellular organisms

The organization in multi – cellular organisms is:

Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism

Cells reproduce similar cells like them and they start grouping each other to form a tissue. There are 4 different types of tissues in our body. The 4 tissues are epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. There are also sub-classifications of tissues like the three types of muscle tissue - skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Various types of tissues are grouped together to form an organ. For example the stomach. The stomach contains epithelial tissue which lines up the stomach, connective tissue which hold the shape of the stomach, nerve tissue which co-ordinates activities and the muscle tissue to move and mix stomach contents. Organs which work together make up systems like the digestive system. Some of the organs in the digestive stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Many systems in living organisms make up the organism just like the respiratory system, circulatory system and etc., which work together to make the organism live.


D isorders in s ystems

Respiratory-Digestive-Circulatory

Disorders In systems


Respiratory disorders

Respiratory Disorders

One of the most common respiratory disorders is asthma. It is when the bronchial airways are narrowed, causing coughing and difficulty breathing. Many things, some of which include allergens, infections, and air pollution, can cause it. It typically begins at an early age, however it can occur at later stages. Another extremely serious one is pneumonia. Bacteria can cause it, and it is when the lungs

inflame, the alveoli are filled with

inflammatory cells, and the lungs

become solid. It can be lethal, if

not appropriately treated in time.

Normal Asthmatic


Digestive disorders

Digestive Disorders

One of the disorders of the digestive system is gallstones. They form when things in the bile, such as cholesterol, form stones or when the gallbladder fails to empty properly. They are only an issue if they block a duct. They are more likely to occur in overweight people and those trying to lose weight quickly. Another is irritable bowel syndrome, which causes bloating, fullness, abdominal pain, and gas. The causes are mostly unknown, though a known one is after an intestinal infection. It can also cause diarrhoea and constipation.


Circulatory disorders

Circulatory Disorders

One disorder of the circulatory system is heart attacks. They occur when the blood flow to one part of the heart is blocked by a build-up of plaque and is damaged or dies. The plaque is made of cholesterol and other cells. There are many factors that can lead to a heart attack, and the cause is not always known. Atherosclerosis is also formed by plaque build up. It is a hardening of the arteries and can block them, causing problems throughout the body. It can cause tissue damage or death due to blood and oxygen starvation. This can cause heart attacks or stroke.


H ealthy s ystems

Respiratory-Digestive-Circulatory

Healthy systems


Respiratory health

Respiratory Health

Your respiratory system can be kept healthy by avoiding smoking, as smoking weakens and damages your lungs. Daily exercise that gets you breathing hard also helps to ‘exercise’

your lungs. Keeping a balanced diet that

is low on salt and fat helps keep your

lungs healthy. Finally, a yearly

check-up with a doctor is always a

good idea.


Digestive health

Digestive Health

To keep your digestive system healthy, it all hinges on a healthy diet. Eat both insoluble and soluble fiber and lots of it, as this lets food move easier through the digestive track. Lean meat is your friend, but avoid fatty foods. Probiotics also help, as does keeping to an eating schedule.

Then there are the usual suspects,

exercising and drinking water.

Things to avoid are stress and bad

habits such as smoking or alcohol.


Circulatory health

Circulatory Health

Steps to keeping a healthy

circulatory system are similar to

the others. Exercise regularly

and eat healthy foods to ease its

work. Don’t smoke, as this damages

your heart, and keep a healthy weight as being too heavy significantly increases your chance of heart problems.


Cells and systems topic 6 7

HOW TO KEEP A HEALTHY BODY


What i think

What I think….

“Almost 60% of all Canadian adults and 26% of our children and adolescents are overweight or obese.”

Why are many Canadians obese?

What can we do, government do, and other Canadians do to prevent this?

I think, not only Canadians should keep a healthy body everyone should prevent being unhealthy. There are many different ways people could resolve their mistakes. People should start seriously keep a healthy body to prevent any types of diseases.


Why are people being so unhealthy

Why are people being so unhealthy?

Have we ever thought what caused people to be overweight or obese?

Things which cause many people to be overweight is:

  • Not exercising

  • Not eating healthy food

  • Eating fast food all most everyday or often

  • Eating processed items from the grocery store


How to be healthy by yourself

How to be Healthy by Yourself

There are numerous ways to stay healthy like:

  • Exercise daily for at least 30 minutes

  • Eat healthy

  • Try to stay away from junk food as much as you can

  • Buy organic items from the grocery store rather than processed foods.


What can the country do to help all c anadians who are obese

What can the country do to help all Canadians who are obese ?

There are numerous ways that the country can help Canadians. Some ways are:

  • Make a law for the school boards to stop giving junk food to students in the school

  • Making only apple schools

  • Make higher nutrition standards for fast food restaurants


What can the school board do

What can the school board do?

The school board can:

  • Stop having vending machines in the school.

  • Provide healthy lunch and snack to all students.

  • Always provide the students with fresh and healthy lunch and snack.


The 4 components of blood and their function

The 4 components of Blood and their function

The 3 components we are going to talk about are:

  • Plasma

  • Red Blood Cells

  • White Blood Cells

  • Platelets


Plasma

Plasma

The Plasma carries nutrients, waste products, hormones, and blood cells. Plasma is a yellowish fluid that carries the blood cells,it makes 55% of our blood supply.


Red blood cells

Red Blood Cells

  • Red blood cells aid in necessary functions of the body, such as carrying oxygen through your blood to muscles and organs. With low red blood cells (anemia) or no red blood cells or you’re either dying or very sick.


Platelets

Platelets

  • The second type of blood cell is called a platelets. Whenever you have a cut or have a break in your skin. Platelets have the important job of traveling to the area and forming a clot to scab to stop bleeding. they prevent blood from leaking out of the very tiny vessels in your body called capillaries.


White blood cells

White blood cells

White Blood Cells do a multiple of functions. Some of the functions are:

  • Fights diseases

  • Kills bacteria

  • Combat allergic reactions

  • Destroys old and damaged cells

  • Kills invalid organisms

  • Attracted to the immune system

  • They work together to surround bacteria completely

  • Digests bacteria with digestive enzymes


The blood transportation system

The Blood transportation system

The blood transports food(nutrients), waste products, heat, glucose, water, and hormones.

Functions of some things which blood transports

Water = Hydrates cells

Sugar = Powers cells

Oxygen = Powers cells

Proteins = Builds cells/ Reinforces Cells


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