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CANADA IN THE ROARING TWENTIES


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CANADA IN THE ROARING TWENTIES. UNIT 3. ECONOMY AND POLITICS. Each region of Canada had developed its own problems in post-war Canada; Maritimes Quebec Prairies. ECONOMY AND POLITICS. MARITIMES Experienced a drop in production after the war,

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CANADA IN THE ROARING TWENTIES

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CANADA IN THE ROARING TWENTIES

UNIT 3


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ECONOMY AND POLITICS

  • Each region of Canada had developed its own problems in post-war Canada;

    • Maritimes

    • Quebec

    • Prairies


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ECONOMY AND POLITICS

  • MARITIMES

    • Experienced a drop in production after the war,

    • This drop caused a concern for a few reasons:

      • High freight rates on railways;

      • Decline in demand for fish, coal, lumber and farm goods;

      • Stoppage of railway building through the East;

      • High unemployment rates;


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ECONOMY AND POLITICS

  • Maritime provinces formed the Maritime Rights Movement whose sole interest was to

    • Increase subsidies to the provinces;

    • Encourage international trade through Maritime ports;

    • Protect Maritime goods through high tariffs;


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ECONOMY AND POLITICS

  • QUEBEC

    • Still embittered about Conscription in 1917, Quebec formed their own political party within Quebec – Action Nationale led by Abbe Groulx;

    • This party called for the protection of French-Canadian culture:

      • French ownership of large provincial corporations (hydro);

      • Opposed foreign investment in Quebec;

      • Supported traditional French rural life and values;


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ECONOMY AND POLITICS

  • PRAIRIES

    • Began experiencing problems directly after the end of the war, when wheat production/demand stopped;

    • Creation of the National Progressive Partyled by Thomas A. Crerar;

      • Wanted a lower cost of freight and tariffs manufactured products;

      • Allow voters to propose laws and be able to recall MPs who are not representing their concerns;


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PROSPERITY AND CHANGE

  • By 1923-24 the post-war economic slump was beginning to lift and Canadian wheat, manufactured goods and natural resources - iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper were in high demand again;

  • Pulp and paper industry was supplying the large American market;

  • Automobile industry grew;


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PROSPERITY AND CHANGE

  • Manufactured goods, labour-saving devices also grew (radios, record players, toasters, washing machines, electric irons);

  • Largest manufacturing area was in the Montreal – Toronto – Windsor corridor;

  • Toronto and Montreal were large producers before the war, but their production increased dramatically at this time;


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PROSPERITY AND CHANGE

  • Some cities specialized in production of certain goods

    • Hamilton – iron and steel

    • Kitchener – rubber products and furniture

    • Windsor – cars, trucks, car parts

  • American car companies set up branch plants in Canada to avoid tariffs on imported carriages (up to 35% tariff on top of cost);

  • Cars built in Canada receive preferential tariff treatment when sent throughout the Empire;


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PROSPERITY AND CHANGE

  • Farming communities saw uneven prosperity;

  • Some left their farms for work in the cities, while others went into debt to buy the latest tractors and threshers;

  • Wheat farmers were earning record amounts by the mid-1920s;

  • Success of some wheat farmers attracted inexperienced farmers to the West – these used farming methods that rapidly exhausted the soil;


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PROSPERITY AND CHANGE

  • The Maritime provinces experienced economic booms in some areas and bust in others;

  • Coal mining was dropping because of the switch to oil or electricity;

  • Construction and tourism industries grew;

  • Pulp and paper and other related industries also grew as markets opened up in Britain and the US;

  • Changes in railway protection rates for the Maritimes resulted in drops in coal and steel industries; (rates increased by 25%)


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GOOD TIMES

  • Technological advances enabled rural and city dwellers to become connected and their lives made slightly easier (telephone, radio, movies, automobiles, airplanes, electrical appliances);

  • People who moved into the cities got jobs in the service industry (transportation, finance, public administration, hospitality);

  • Wages rose for most people, many could buy things on credit, disposable income grew for spending on cars, radios and sewing machines;


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GOOD TIMES

  • Roads were being built for the growing number of cars and trucks, airmail service for the mail;

  • Bush pilots were flying to and mapping the North;

  • Stocks (portions of a company purchased by the public) were being bought as peoples’ confidence in the economy increased;

  • This led to a stock market boom;


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LEISURE TIMES

  • Growth of radio broadcasts in Canada meant that in 1929 there were 297 000 radios in homes where in 1923 there were only 10 000;

  • First North American broadcast was from Montreal on May 20, 1920 – it was a music program;

  • The first radios needed headphones and controls were primitive and poor quality – they improved rapidly;


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LEISURE TIMES

  • Ted Rogers, a Canadian electrical engineer, developed the ‘battery-less’ radio (worked through electrical current) and opened CFRB (Canadian Frequency Rogers Battery-less) from Toronto;

  • Most programs listened to came from the US (80% of the shows);

  • CBC (Canadian Broadcasting System) was created in 1936 in response to concerns that too much American content was heard on Canadian radio (Aird Report)

  • First Canadian program was Hockey Night in Canada with Foster Hewitt, occurring on March 22, 1923;


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GROUP OF SEVEN

  • Canadian artists who had developed an unconventional style of painting impressions of Canadian wilderness scenes with deep colours and broad, heavy strokes;

  • Influenced by one another’s talents and paintings, specifically Tom Thomson (died in 1917), they formed the Group of Seven;

  • Members were: Lawren Harris, JEH MacDonald, Franklin Carmicheal, Arthur Lismer, FH Varley, AY Jackson, Frank Johnston;


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MOVIES

  • Most popular form of entertainment;

  • Low cost and provided a feature presentation, a “supporting” movies and a Newsreel;

  • Minor boom in Canadian production in 1920s despite Canada had been producing promotional movies since 1897;

  • Influex of Hollywood style movies after Famous Players purchased Canadian Allen movie theatres in 1923;

  • Silent films used to exaggerate actions and occasional captions;

  • 1927 was the first “talkie” – Al Jolson in the Jazz Singer


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LITERATURE

  • Growth in this field for Canadian author:

    • Stephen Leacock, Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town;

    • Mazo de la Roche, Jalna;

    • Morley Callaghan, Strange Fugitive

    • Leslie McFarlane (pseudonym of Franklin W. Dixon), Hardy Boys;

  • These people contributed to a new style of Canadian writing and publishing, later to influence generations of authors;


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SPORTS

  • Often referred to as “Canada’s Golden Age of Sports;”

  • The International Fisherman’s Trophy in 1921 went to the Canadian Bluenose after beating an American ship;

  • Growth of hockey as the new national pastime, which influenced cities and towns across the nation, as well as the Americans who contributed 3 teams to the National Hockey League;


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SPORTS

  • Howie Morenz, most popular player at the time (on the Montreal Canadiens) and won the Hart Trophy 3 times in the 1920s;

  • Lionel Conacher was an all-round athelete (football, boxing, wrestling, baseball, lacrosse and hockey)

    • His teams won the Grey Cup in 1921 and the International League pennant in 1926 (baseball);

    • He won the Canadian light-weight boxing championship and the Ontario wrestling championship;


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1928 OLYMPICS

  • Amsterdam, Holland:

    • Track and field took several medals in a number of events;

    • Fanny “Bobby” Rosenfield (Russian-born immigrants) won Gold in the 100 metre dash and Silver in the 4 x 100 relay;

    • Percy Williams won Gold in the 100 metre and 200 metre dash; there was also a promotional aspect to this – a chocolate bar was named after him “Our Percy”


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QUALITY OF LIFE

  • Technological advances such as electrical appliances reduced chore times;

  • “Flappers” were city dweller women who were living a lifestyle most believed inappropriate for women at the time;

  • Clothing for women had become more equal to the men’s style with short, bobbed hair, raised skirts and more revealing clothing;

  • Canadian scientist Frederick Banting and his partner, Charles Best, discovered insulin, which helped control diabetes;


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IMMIGRATION AND INTOLERANCE

  • Many British-Protestant Canadians were demonstrating their intolerance to Eastern Europeans and to visible minorities, whether Canadian-born or not;

  • The activities of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s influenced some of the policies of the provincial governments;

  • Attempts made to “anglicize” many non-white members of communities through education in special schools or through missionary work;


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IMMIGRATION AND INTOLERANCE

  • NATIVE PEOPLE

    • Outlawed the Potlatch and the Sun Dance;

    • Children were taken and placed in residential schools in order to assimilate the younger generations;

    • Indian Act of 1920 banned certain types of native government – ensured complete dependence on Canadian government;

    • Reserve Indians could not vote;

    • Women were excluded from selecting chiefs;

    • Chief Deskadeh (F.O. Loft) went to the British government and League of Nations to gain independence, but it was not granted;


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PROHIBITION

  • Many women who had recently received the vote lobbied for prohibition (ban on the production and sale of alcohol);

  • It was believed by the temperance movements that alcohol was the center of society’s ills: domestic violence, crime rates;

  • Felt it was immoral to drink alcohol when the grain could be used for food products;


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PROHIBITION

  • Federal government controls importing, manufacture and export of alcohol; provinces control licensing, sale and consumption;

  • Federal government legislated in 1918-1919 that alcohol production stop;

  • By 1917, all provinces except Quebec were under prohibition;


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PROHIBITION

  • Laws were ignored by a large portion of Canadians;

  • Bootleggers (people who made and sold alcohol illegally) made millions of dollars, provinces lost tax dollars, so it was slowly repealed;


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PROHIBITION

  • Benefits of prohibition:

    • Crime rate dropped

    • Arrest and drunkenness down 93%

    • Expensive from bootleggers

    • Fewer police needed

    • Some jails closed

    • More money went home to families

    • Domestic violence down

    • More productivity at work