Performance evaluation technology of photovoltaics for certification & calibration
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Performance evaluation technology of photovoltaics for certification & calibration. Kengo Morita T Ü V Rheinland Japan Ltd. Solar Energy Assessment Center (SEAC) 4-5-24 Chigasaki-higashi, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama 224-0033, Japan Tel: +81-45-271-3508 Direct: +81-45-914-0439

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Kengo Morita T Ü V Rheinland Japan Ltd. Solar Energy Assessment Center (SEAC)

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Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Performance evaluation technology of photovoltaics for certification & calibration

Kengo Morita

TÜV Rheinland Japan Ltd.Solar Energy Assessment Center (SEAC)

4-5-24 Chigasaki-higashi, Tsuzuki-ku,

Yokohama 224-0033, Japan

Tel: +81-45-271-3508

Direct: +81-45-914-0439

Fax: +81-45-271-3525

email: [email protected]://www.tuv.com

No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission fromTÜV Rheinland Japan - Photovoltaic Department.

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Outline

  • * About us

  • * Importance of performance evaluation

  • * General concept for performance evaluation of PV modules

  • * Our facilities for the performance measurement

    * Measurement technique of

    - Single amorphous

    - Multi junction (ex; a-Si / μc-Si)

    - CIS

    * Future Plan

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

About Us

  • Established as a pressure vessel inspection organization we have been offering international safety and system management certification for over 130 years.

People

Technology

Environment

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Automotive Industry

Primary Industry

Construction & Real Estate

Railway/Track-Based Systems

Health

Banks & Insurance Companies

Aviation and Airports

Consumer Goods Industry

Energy Industry

Capital Goods

Leisure Time Industry

Suppliers

Industries served by the TÜV Rheinland Group

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our activity in PV field

- PV module certification program

*IEC 61215 and IEC 61730 – Crystalline

*IEC 61646 and IEC 61730 – Thin Film

*Factory inspection

- Calibration & Measurement Services of Photovoltaics

- Type approval of PV module components

Accreditations

Our testing laboratory conforms to ISO/IEC 17025:2005

- IECEE CB Accreditation

- JNLA & ASNITE Accreditation by IA Japan

- DATech Accreditation by DAR (Germany)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

SEAC (Solar Energy Assessment Center)

Opened in Yokohama city

on 2009/6/15

The SEAC provides evaluations of the Thin Film Modules and Calibration Services.

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Electr.

properties

Damp

heat test

Thermal

cycling (TC200)

Outdoor exposure

Thermal

cycling (TC50)

Bypass- diode test

Humidity

freeze test

Hot-spot test

Robustness of terminations

Importance of performance evaluation

Simplified test sequence of certification program (IEC61215, 61646)

Visual inspection, power determination, insulation test (dry and wet)

UV

preconditioning

Mech. load test

Hail impact

Light-soaking  only IEC 61646

Visual inspection, power determination, insulation test (dry and wet)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Importance of performance evaluation

  • Certification testing

  • Simplified pass criteria regarding performance

  • - For crystalline Si (IEC61215)

  • * Degradation rate of each test < 5%

  • * Degradation rate of each sequence < 8%

    - For thin-film (IEC61646)

    * Pmax at STC after light soaking > 90% of Pmax of min_value

    specified by manufacturer

    Calibraton testing

    Measured module is used as reference module for

    measurement control of production line

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

General concept for performance evaluation

1. Relevant standards

  • * IEC60904-1 (IV measurement method)

  • * IEC60904-2 (Reference cell & module

  • with calibration method)

  • * IEC60904-3 (Measurement principles

  • with reference spectral irradiance data)

  • * IEC60904-4 (Traceability)

    * IEC60904-7 (Computation of the spectral mismatch

    correction)

    * IEC60904-8 (spectral response measurement method)

    * IEC60904-9 (Requirement of solar simulator)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

General concept for performance evaluation

2. Standard test condition (STC)

  • * Irradiance: 1kW/m2

  • * Spectral irradiance

  • distribution: AM1.5 G,

  • Reference spectrum

    * Temperature: 25℃

Reference spectral irradiance (AM1.5G)

Reference spectral irradiance is determined by IEC60904-3.

The performance of photovoltaics should be measured based on standard test condition.

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

General concept for performance evaluation

3. Reference solar cells

Spectral response of some kind of general photovoltaics

Photograph of reference solar cell

The spectral response of reference solar cell should be similar to tested sample. Otherwise spectral mismatch error is induced.

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

General concept for performance evaluation

4. Spectral mismatch evaluation

What is spectral mismatch error ?

ΦS (λ) :Reference spectral irradiance

Φm (λ) :Spectral irradiance of used solar simulator

Q1(λ) :Spectral response of reference solar cell

Q2(λ):Spectral response of tested sample

(IEC60904-7: Computation of the spectral mismatch correction for muasurement of photovoltaic devices)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

1. Photo of solar simulator

Long pulse solar simulator (LPSS)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

2. Specification of LPSS

・ Available test area: 2.0×1.4m

・ Class AAA in accordance with IEC60904-9 Ed.2 - Spectral irradiance: Air Mass 1.5G, Variable type <±25% according to IEC60904-9 - Non-Uniformity: <±2.0% (Class A) - Stability of Pulse: within ±2.0%

・ Maximum pulse duration: 800msec

・ Lamp: 6 Xenon short-arc lamp (5kW)

・ Accuracy of current & voltage measurement: <±0.2%

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Check every month

Our facilities for performance evaluation

3. Measurement data of Non-Uniformity (%)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

4. Measurement data of Spectral match

Match to crystalline Si (IEC/JIS)

Match to amorphous Si (JIS)

Spectral irradiance of solar simulator

Check every month

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

5. Measurement data of Temporal instability

Sample Isc after irradiance correction

(Sample Isc / measured irradiance

by reference range)

Irradiance during 1 pulse

(Measured Isc / calibrated Isc)

Accuracy of irradiance correction = ±0.1%

(This is the concept of STI)

LTI = ±0.9%

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

6. Measurement procedure

1. Check of spectral response of the tested sample

to be measured

2. Spectral mismatch evaluation (IEC60904-7)

3. Set of the tested sample and reference cell

(Reference cell should be set at the position of average irradiance in the area of tested sample.)

4. Temperature control (tested sample and reference cell)

5. Check of sweep direciton and sampling speed

6. Adjustment of irradiance

7. Measurement of current and voltage of the tested sample

& irradiance (current of reference cell) at same time

during sweeping voltage, 250point, repeat time: 3)

8. Data analysis

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

7. Uncertainty

Isc: 2.0%

Voc:1.1%

Pmax:2.3%

(coverage factor k = 2)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Our facilities for performance evaluation

8. Measurement Reproducibility of Pmax, Isc by our measurement system during 6 months

Isc: 0.2% (2σ)

Pmax: 0.6% (2σ)

Sample: mono-crystalline Si, 1.6×1.0m

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Example of Test Report of IV measurement

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type

Results from the Second InternationalModule Inter-comparison

S. Rummel et al., 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-4) held May 7-12,

2006 in Waikoloa, Hawaii

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type

1. single amorphous

Reference solar cell: Pseudo amorphous reference cell

Additional filter type

Identification type

encapsulated type

Structure: Crystalline Si with optical filter which spectral response is similar to tested amorphous cell)

Spectral mismatch evaluation

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type

1. single amorphous

Solar simulator

lens

Reflection light

Incident light

Re-reflection

Ref Cell

Light angle characteristics of reference cells

Irradiance measurement error is induced by multi-reflection. One of solution is structure of reference cell.

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type2. Multi-junction

・Double junction consists of top cell (ex:a-Si) and bottom cell

(ex:thin film c-Si) with difference range of spectral response

・Series connected structure (Top+Bottom)

Spectral response of top cell and bottom cell of multi (double) junction cell

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type2. Multi-junction

Tandem modules are series connected structure

The current of the module is limited to the current of the cell with the lower Isc (Top or Bottom)

IV characteristic of the module strongly depends on the spectral irradiance distribution of the light source.

It is more difficult to evaluate STC performance than that of single junction cell

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type2. Multi-junction

Spectral dependence characteristics of multi-junction cell

IV characteristic of the multi-junction cell strongly depends on the spectral irradiance distribution of the light source.

Source: Fraunhofer ISE

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type2. Multi-junction

Measurement procedure for double-junction

1. Measure spectral response of top and bottom cell (tested sample)

2. Make 2 reference component cells used by stable crystalline Si cell with proper optical filter based on spectral response data of tested sample.

3. Measure spectral response of 2 reference component cells

4. Confirm that these reference cells are relatively equivalent to that of tested sample (Spectral mismatch evaluations)

5. Calibrate each reference cell in accordance with IEC60904-2

6. Measure IV characteristic of tested sample at the condition that irradiance level measured with each reference component cell is 1 Sun (kw/m2)

(This condition is equivalent to AM1.5G for double-junction)

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type3. CIS

Spectral response of CIS and crystalline-Si

Reference solar cell: Crystalline-SiNeed spectral mismatch correction

http://www.showashell-solar.co.jp/index.html

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Measurement technique for thin-film type3. CIS

Light soaking effect, annealing effect of CIS solar cell

Preconditioning should be determined before performance measurement

http://www.tech.nedo.go.jp/

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

Future plan

  • Calibration of secondary reference cell & module- Research for Performance evaluation method * Proper structure of reference device for amorphous & multi-junction * Spectral adjustment technique for multi-junction * Proper preconditioning for CIS * New method for new technology (DSC, Organic cell) * Traceability to production line- Research for Reliability evaluation method * Long-term outdoor exposure test * Correlation between Lab test and outdoor test * Acceleration test

TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


Kengo morita t v rheinland japan ltd solar energy assessment center seac

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TÜV Rheinland Japan Photovoltaic Department


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