Robert e lee jefferson davis stonewall jackson william sherman ulysses grant chapter 4
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Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Stonewall Jackson William Sherman Ulysses Grant Chapter 4. Two Societies at War. Secession. Civil War = War between the States by southerners and War of Rebellion by northerners

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Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Stonewall Jackson William Sherman Ulysses Grant Chapter 4

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Robert e lee jefferson davis stonewall jackson william sherman ulysses grant chapter 4

Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Stonewall Jackson William Sherman Ulysses GrantChapter 4

Two Societies at War


Secession

Secession

  • Civil War = War between the States by southerners and War of Rebellion by northerners

  • Dec. 20, 1860 – So. Carolina secedes from Union; followed by Miss., Florida, Alabama, Georgia, & Lo., primarily because of the election of Lincoln

  • Buchanan said immediately secession was illegal, but fed. gov’t lacked authority to restore union by force

  • Secessionists met in Feb. 1861 & proclaimed a new nation – the Confederate States of America & named Jefferson Davis as President


Ft sumter

Ft. Sumter

  • April 14th, 1861 - 1st shots of Civil War fired on Ft. Sumter – federal arsenal in Charleston Harbor

  • South Carolina demanded surrender – Lincoln called in state militia to put down insurrection

  • After South Carolina took Ft. Sumter, 4 more slave states joined Confed. (11)


Objectives and strategies

Objectives and Strategies

North

  • Lincoln wanted unconditional surrender

  • Anaconda Plan: 3 prong attack – 1.) blockade coastline 2.) control Miss. River 3.) take Richmond

  • McClellan marched toward Richmond too slowly & Confederates launched counterattack


Southern strategy

Southern Strategy

  • Jefferson Davis wanted to fight defensive war & avoid taking west

  • Military stalemate = achieve goal of southern independence

  • South needed to protect its coastline, solicit other countries help; they believed need for cotton would encourage Euro countries to help them

  • Cotton from India replaced cotton grown in Confederacy


Civil war 1861 1865 north south advantages

North

Factories to produce war materials

More people to draft

Central government in place that supported war financially

Better roads & railroads to move troops & supplies

Lincoln portrayed secession as an attack on popular gov’t – demanded unconditional surrender

South

Fought defensive war only

Defended homes & families/ knew land better

Lacked central gov’t; it financed 60% of expenses w/ unbacked paper money - inflation

Better generals; better marksmen – more military experience

Linked confederate cause with that of American Rev; fighting against tyranny

Civil War: 1861-1865North/South Advantages


Civil war 1861 62

Civil War – 1861-62

  • Both sides believed war would last less than 3 months

  • July 21st, 1861: Battle of Bull Run – Confederate forces routed Union forces; Lincoln replaced / McDowell w/ McClellan

  • 1862 – McClellan attacked Richmond unsuccessfully & Army of the Potomac had to retreat

  • 1862 – 2nd Battle of Bull Run – Lee & Jackson again rout Yanks & move north into Maryland

  • Sept. 17th, 1862 – Antietam – Lee was outnumbered 87k to 50k; Union victory; considered bloodiest single day in military history; 4800 dead, 18,500 wounded (3000 soon died): total


North redefines war

North Redefines War

  • 1862 – Lincoln & others accepted F. Douglass’s argument & redefined war as struggle against slavery

  • Thousands of slaves escaped & sought refuge in North

  • July 1862 – 2nd Confiscation Act declared “forever free” all fugitive slaves & all slaves captured by Union Army

  • January 1st, 1863 – Emancipation Proclamation; Union troops become agents of liberation


The turning point 1863

The Turning Point: 1863

  • Grant’s 6 week siege of Vicksburg - ends w/ so. Surrender on July 1st, 1863; Grant cut off Louisiana, Arkansas, & Texas from rest of Confederacy; 100’s of slaves deserted plantations

  • Battle of Gettysburg – July 1-3, 1863 = turning point in war; momentum goes to North as southern hopes of foreign recognition gone w/ these military defeats; south launched Pickett’s charge – complete disaster as no. used new rifle-muskets & easily mowed down attackers;

  • Meade’s losses @ Gettysburg = 23k, Lee’s = 28k

  • South would never again invade north

  • “King Cotton” no longer diplomatic weapon as British manufacturers found new sources in India & Egypt


The union victorious 1864 1865

The Union Victorious, 1864-1865

Soldiers & Strategy:

  • Lincoln -@ 1st refused to use blacks for military service; relented as resistance to conscription & arguments if blacks to benefit from Union victory they should share in fighting/dying.

  • 1864 - Lincoln put Ulysses S. Grant in charge of all Union forces

  • Grant relied on technology & directed war @ entire society; terrorized civilian population to crush so. will to resist; changed def. of conventional warfare


Election of 1864 sherman s march to the sea

Election of 1864 Sherman’s March to the Sea

  • June, 1864 – Repub. convention endorsed Lincoln’s war measures, demanded Confed. surrender, & called for constitutional amendment to abolish slavery

  • Andrew Johnson nominated vice-president

  • Sept., 1864 – Atlanta surrendered to Sherman & instead of following confed. Army to Tenn., he cut mile wide path of destruction to Savannah to devastate Georgia & score psychological victory

  • Sherman destroyed farms, railroads, supplies – burned fields & homes; 1865 Sherman invaded So. Carolina to vent his rage upon state where secession had begun


Appomattox april 9 th 1865 end of civil war

Appomattox – April 9th, 1865 End of Civil War

  • April 9th, 1865 – Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

  • The Civil War cost over 600k lives

  • The financial costs has been figured at around 10 billion dollars

  • 5 days after Appomattox, on April 14th, 1865 Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth


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