Robert e lee jefferson davis stonewall jackson william sherman ulysses grant chapter 4
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Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Stonewall Jackson William Sherman Ulysses Grant Chapter 4. Two Societies at War. Secession. Civil War = War between the States by southerners and War of Rebellion by northerners

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Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Stonewall Jackson William Sherman Ulysses Grant Chapter 4

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Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Stonewall Jackson William Sherman Ulysses GrantChapter 4

Two Societies at War


Secession

  • Civil War = War between the States by southerners and War of Rebellion by northerners

  • Dec. 20, 1860 – So. Carolina secedes from Union; followed by Miss., Florida, Alabama, Georgia, & Lo., primarily because of the election of Lincoln

  • Buchanan said immediately secession was illegal, but fed. gov’t lacked authority to restore union by force

  • Secessionists met in Feb. 1861 & proclaimed a new nation – the Confederate States of America & named Jefferson Davis as President


Ft. Sumter

  • April 14th, 1861 - 1st shots of Civil War fired on Ft. Sumter – federal arsenal in Charleston Harbor

  • South Carolina demanded surrender – Lincoln called in state militia to put down insurrection

  • After South Carolina took Ft. Sumter, 4 more slave states joined Confed. (11)


Objectives and Strategies

North

  • Lincoln wanted unconditional surrender

  • Anaconda Plan: 3 prong attack – 1.) blockade coastline 2.) control Miss. River 3.) take Richmond

  • McClellan marched toward Richmond too slowly & Confederates launched counterattack


Southern Strategy

  • Jefferson Davis wanted to fight defensive war & avoid taking west

  • Military stalemate = achieve goal of southern independence

  • South needed to protect its coastline, solicit other countries help; they believed need for cotton would encourage Euro countries to help them

  • Cotton from India replaced cotton grown in Confederacy


North

Factories to produce war materials

More people to draft

Central government in place that supported war financially

Better roads & railroads to move troops & supplies

Lincoln portrayed secession as an attack on popular gov’t – demanded unconditional surrender

South

Fought defensive war only

Defended homes & families/ knew land better

Lacked central gov’t; it financed 60% of expenses w/ unbacked paper money - inflation

Better generals; better marksmen – more military experience

Linked confederate cause with that of American Rev; fighting against tyranny

Civil War: 1861-1865North/South Advantages


Civil War – 1861-62

  • Both sides believed war would last less than 3 months

  • July 21st, 1861: Battle of Bull Run – Confederate forces routed Union forces; Lincoln replaced / McDowell w/ McClellan

  • 1862 – McClellan attacked Richmond unsuccessfully & Army of the Potomac had to retreat

  • 1862 – 2nd Battle of Bull Run – Lee & Jackson again rout Yanks & move north into Maryland

  • Sept. 17th, 1862 – Antietam – Lee was outnumbered 87k to 50k; Union victory; considered bloodiest single day in military history; 4800 dead, 18,500 wounded (3000 soon died): total


North Redefines War

  • 1862 – Lincoln & others accepted F. Douglass’s argument & redefined war as struggle against slavery

  • Thousands of slaves escaped & sought refuge in North

  • July 1862 – 2nd Confiscation Act declared “forever free” all fugitive slaves & all slaves captured by Union Army

  • January 1st, 1863 – Emancipation Proclamation; Union troops become agents of liberation


The Turning Point: 1863

  • Grant’s 6 week siege of Vicksburg - ends w/ so. Surrender on July 1st, 1863; Grant cut off Louisiana, Arkansas, & Texas from rest of Confederacy; 100’s of slaves deserted plantations

  • Battle of Gettysburg – July 1-3, 1863 = turning point in war; momentum goes to North as southern hopes of foreign recognition gone w/ these military defeats; south launched Pickett’s charge – complete disaster as no. used new rifle-muskets & easily mowed down attackers;

  • Meade’s losses @ Gettysburg = 23k, Lee’s = 28k

  • South would never again invade north

  • “King Cotton” no longer diplomatic weapon as British manufacturers found new sources in India & Egypt


The Union Victorious, 1864-1865

Soldiers & Strategy:

  • Lincoln -@ 1st refused to use blacks for military service; relented as resistance to conscription & arguments if blacks to benefit from Union victory they should share in fighting/dying.

  • 1864 - Lincoln put Ulysses S. Grant in charge of all Union forces

  • Grant relied on technology & directed war @ entire society; terrorized civilian population to crush so. will to resist; changed def. of conventional warfare


Election of 1864 Sherman’s March to the Sea

  • June, 1864 – Repub. convention endorsed Lincoln’s war measures, demanded Confed. surrender, & called for constitutional amendment to abolish slavery

  • Andrew Johnson nominated vice-president

  • Sept., 1864 – Atlanta surrendered to Sherman & instead of following confed. Army to Tenn., he cut mile wide path of destruction to Savannah to devastate Georgia & score psychological victory

  • Sherman destroyed farms, railroads, supplies – burned fields & homes; 1865 Sherman invaded So. Carolina to vent his rage upon state where secession had begun


Appomattox – April 9th, 1865 End of Civil War

  • April 9th, 1865 – Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

  • The Civil War cost over 600k lives

  • The financial costs has been figured at around 10 billion dollars

  • 5 days after Appomattox, on April 14th, 1865 Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth


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