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P. Castorina Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universit à di Catania-Italy

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Event horizon and entropy in high energy hadroproduction

Statistical and/or Entanglement hadronization?

P. Castorina

Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia

Università di Catania-Italy

QCD Hadronization and

the Statistical Model

6-10 October 2014

ECT - Trento

Thermal hadron production: (open) questions

Event horizon and thermal spectrum

Unruh effect

Color event horizon and hadronization

Answering a là Unruh to the open questions

Conclusions

Becattini (2006)

Freeze-out

s/T^3 = 7

WHY ?

A. Bazazov et al. (HotQCD Collaboration), arXiv:1407.6387

Freeze-out

E/N = 1.08 Gev

WHY ?

Questions

1) Why do elementary high energy collisions

show a statistical behavior?

2) Why is strangeness production universally suppressed

in elementary collisions?

3) Why (almost) no strangeness suppression in nuclear collisions?

4) Why hadron freeze-out for s/T^3 = 7 or E/N=1.08 Gev

Is there another non-kinetic mechanism providing a

common origin of the statistical features?

Conjecture

Physical vacuum

Event horizon for colored constituents

Thermal hadron production

Hawking-Unruh radiation in QCD

P.C., D.Kharzeev and H.Satz -- D.Kharzeev and Y.Tuchin ( temperature)

Eur.Phys.J. C52 (2007) 187-201

Nucl. Phys. A 753, 316 (2005)

F.Becattini, P.C., J.Manninen and H.Satz (strangeness suppression in e+e-)

Eur.Phys.J. C56 (2008) 493-510

P.C. and H.Satz (strangeness enhancement in heavy ion collisions)

Adv.High Energy Phys. 2014 (2014) 376982

P.C., A. Iorio and H.Satz ( entropy and freeze-out)

arXiv:1409.3104

Recall

M. K. Parikh and F. Wilczek, “Hawking radiation as tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 5042

Rindler

observer

- arXiv:0710.5373
- The Unruh effect and its applications
- Luis C. B. Crispino,Atsushi Higuchi,George E. A. Matsa

QFT - Unruh (elementary)

Applications (elementary implementation)

G

R. Parentani, S. Massar . Phys.Rev. D55 (1997) 3603-3613

R. Brout, R. Parentani, and Ph. Spindel, “Thermal properties of pairs produced by an electric ﬁeld: A tunneling approach,” Nucl. Phys. B 353 (1991) 209.

THE SCHWINGER MECHANISM, THE UNRUH EFFECT AND THE PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED BLACK HOLES

Uniform acceleration

Event Horizon

Universal thermal behavior

In QCD ?

Confinement

QCD - Uniform acceleration

TOY MODEL

Full analysis

F.Becattini, P.C., J.Manninen and H.Satz (strangeness suppression in e+e-)

Eur.Phys.J. C56 (2008) 493-510

F.Becattini, P.C., J.Manninen and H.Satz (strangeness suppression in e+e-)

String breaking and E/N = 1.08 Gev

Bekenstein-Hawking black-hole entropy

( scale of quantum gravity fluctuactions)

1) Valid for a Rindler horizon ( constant acceleration)?

2) What is the scale r?

r is the typical (short) scale of quantum fluctuaction

L. Bombelli, R. K. Koul, J. H. Lee and R. D. Sorkin, Phys. Rev. D 34, 373 (1986).

M.Srednicki PRL 71(1993)666

QFT

H.Terashima PRD 61(2000) 104016

Lambiase, Iorio, Vitiello Annals of Physics 309 (2004) 151

String breaking and

physical meaning : entanglement

Preliminary – work in progress

P.C., A. Iorio and H.Satz

Chirco et al.

PRD 90,044044,2014

an interesting example

BUT

and therefore

Unruh and Minkowsky

Exactly as in the previous example

K

Statistical mechanics of causal horizon

Ted Jacobson, Renaud Parentani, Horizon Entropy in Found.Phys. 33 (2003) 323-348

The deep meaning of the result

based on

is that the entanglement entropy density per unit horizon area

is finite and universal .. In QFT

( at least for )

M.Srednicki PRL 71(1993)666

QFT

H.Terashima PRD 61(2000) 104016

Lambiase, Iorio, Vitiello , Annals of Physics 309 (2004) 151

A possible understanding of the phenomenological result

is that it corresponds to the entanglement entropy through the

color confinement horizon due to the string tension.

Entanglement hadronization

Problem of species?

Entanglement explicit calculation

Preliminary – work in progress

P.C., A. Iorio and H.Satz

P.C. and H.Satz arXiv:1403.3541

Hawking-Unruh Hadronization and Strangeness Production in High Energy Collisions

(a first preliminary step)

heavy ions

TOY MODEL

The Wrobleski factor increases from 0.25 in elementary collisions

to 0.36 in the toy (pions and kaons) model.

Criteria for hadron freeze-out

Work in progress

Data from F. Becattini, J. Manninen, and M. Gazdzicki, “Energy and system size dependence of chemical freeze-out in relativistic nuclear

collisions,” Phys. Rev. C73 (2006) 044905,

For the Unruh mechanism explains the freeze-out criteria

E/N = 1.08 Gev and suggests a physical motivation for s/T^3 = 7

Fundamental Physics!

BH

But there is more statistical/entanglement ?

In string breaking

Hawking-Unruh radiation in a lab!

Competitors:

Gravity analogue

Lasers - Unruh, Schutzhold,…

Hawking-Unruh effect in Graphene - Lambiase-Iorio, PLB716,2012,334

and arxive 1308.0265.

Workshop on Unruh radiation – Bielefeld – February 2015

C. Barcelo, S. Liberati, and M. Visser, Living Rev. Rel.

T. Ohsaku, “Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking and

its Restoration for an Accelerated Observer,” Physics

Letters B, Vol. 599, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 102-110.

Symmetry Restoration by Acceleration

Paolo Castorina, Marco Finocchiaro

Journal of Modern Physics, 2012, 3, 1703-1708

Why

But…

For hadron production in high energy collisions, causality requirements lead to the counterpart of the cosmological horizon problem: the production occurs in a number of causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) must be conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. This provides a theoretical basis for the observed suppression of strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e+e−). In contrast, the space-time superposition of many collisions in heavy ion interactions largely removes these causality constraints, resulting in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full equilibrium.