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MODULE 4– Comprehension Engaging Students in Extended Text Discussion. Welcome back, NGCARPD Cohort 2 Please sign in. . Today’s Agenda. This morning: -SSS and Common Core Correlation --Engaging Students in Extended Discussion of Text This afternoon: -Review of CIS Model

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MODULE 4– Comprehension Engaging Students in Extended Text Discussion

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MODULE 4– Comprehension Engaging Students in Extended Text Discussion

Welcome back, NGCARPD Cohort 2

Please sign in.


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Today’s Agenda

This morning:

-SSS and Common Core Correlation

--Engaging Students in Extended Discussion of Text

This afternoon:

-Review of CIS Model

-Discussion/Sharing of Your Lessons

-Overview and Requirements of Practicum


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Teaching Reading Comprehension

The research

Extended text discussion

Text instructional tools

The reader

The interactive process


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Teaching Reading Comprehension

the research


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Teaching Reading Comprehension

Effective Practices for Teaching Students To Think and Understand Text

From Stu Greenberg, Executive Director

Just Read, Florida! and the Office of Early Learning


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“What should comprehension instruction be instruction of?” - Mike Pressley

  • Teach decoding skills

  • Encourage the development of sight words

  • Teach students to use semantic context cues to evaluate whether decodings are accurate

  • Teach vocabulary meanings

  • Encourage extensive reading

  • Teach self-regulated use of comprehension strategies

Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M.L. Kamil, P.B.Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (vol. III, pp. 545–561).Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Recent Brain ResearchFindings in Reading


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Teaching Reading & The Brain


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5 Year Olds Before Learning To Read

Right

Left

Right

Left


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Good Intervention:

Normalizes Brain Activation Patterns

Right

Left

Before Intervention

normalized

After

Intervention


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First-Grade

Seventh-Grade


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An fMRI Study of Strategic Reading Comprehension

While there have been neuroimaging studies of text

comprehension, little is known about the brain

mechanisms underlying strategic learning from text.

Up until recently these studies have not examined the differences in brain activity associated with different reading strategies.


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How are the Reading Strategies useful?

Comprehension Monitoring: Being aware of how well you understand what you are reading.

Paraphrasing: Stating the sentences in your own words.

Prediction: Predicting what will come next in the text.

Elaboration: Linking information in the sentence to information you already know.

Bridging: Linking different parts of a text together.


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Teachers Must Teach Students How To:

  • Make predictions based on background knowledge.

  • Identify key ideas from text they are reading.

  • Be aware of text structures.

  • Monitor their comprehension and know how to employ fix-up strategies.

  • Have a knowledge of and use a variety of reading strategies effectively.

  • Paraphrase, explain and summarize information and construct conclusions.


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Direct Teaching

  • Research shows that reading comprehension can be improved through direct instruction in cognitive strategies (or ways of thinking about the ideas in text)

  • Our focus will be teaching students how to think during reading.


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Teaching Students To Think As They Read

Adapted from Irene Gaskins


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Teaching Students To Think As They Read

Adapted from Irene Gaskins


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What the Research Says About Comprehension

  • Time spent reading is highly correlated with comprehension.

  • Effective instruction using high-quality curriculum materials can increase students’ comprehension.


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Teaching Reading is Urgent

A student at the 10th percentile reads about 60,000 words a year in 5th grade

A student at the 50th percentile reads about 900,000 words a year in 5th grade

Average students receive about 15 times as much practice in a year

(Anderson, R. C., 1992)


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Systematically engage in strategic scaffolding of student learning from text reading

21


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Direct Teaching

Provide thorough text support (fluency, vocabulary, writing/talking)

Teach comprehension strategies (actively teach students to think as they read – active cooperative thinking activities)

Encourage sense making (focus on meaning)


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Continuum of Strategies to Deepen Instruction and Assist Students in Gaining Meaning from Text

Questioning Strategies aligned to FCAT specs

Interactive Comprehension Instruction

23

Extended discussion based on text reading

Extended writing to support comprehension


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During TeachingSequence to build comprehension

Questioning Strategies aligned to FCAT specs

Interactive Comprehension Instruction

Activate prior knowledge with a hook

Make visible the destination for thinking by presenting the unit’s overarching complex question and reviewing the language of the question

Extended discussion based on text reading

Extended writing to support comprehension

Questioning

Monitoring

Model for students how to read and interact with the text using a reflective writing tool

Provide multiple opportunities to read and teach students how to understand text

Provide opportunity to read and interact with the text alone with feedback from the teacher


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Teaching comprehension versus Testing Comprehension

Determining Reading Comprehension

Teaching To Develop Deep Text Understanding

vs

Process-Oriented

Asking Questions

Modeling

Testing

Grading

Guided Practice with Feedback

Evaluating

Student Use with Feedback

(Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from Richardson & Morgan, 2000)


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Sources

Anderson, R.C., Wilson, P.T., & Fielding, L.G. 1988. “Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school.” Reading Research Quarterly 23 (3), p. 292.

Armbruster, B., Lehr, F; Osborne. J. 2001. Putting reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read, kindergarten through grade 3. National Inst. for Literacy, Washington, DC.; National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, Ann Arbor, MI.

Beck, I., & McKeown, M. 2001. “Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children.” Reading Teacher, 55:1.

Baumann, J. & Kame’enui, E. 2004. Vocabulary Instruction. Research to Practice. New York: Guilford Press


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Sources

Baumann, J. & Kame’enui, E. 2004. Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Guilford Press

Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. 2002. Bringing Words to Life. New York: Guilford Press.

Biemiller, Andrew. 1999. Language and reading success. Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts: Brookline Books.

Carlisle, Joanne & Rice, Melinda. 2002. Improving reading comprehension: Research-based principles and practices

Felton, R., & Lillie, D. (2002). Teaching Students with Persistent Reading Problems (a multi-media CD-ROM). Greensboro, NC: Guilford County Schools.

Fielding, L., & Peason, D. 1994. “Reading comprehension: What works.” Educational Leadership, 51:5, pp. 62-68.

Florida Center for Reading Research – fcrr.org. Researchers presentations link.


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Sources

Gaskins, Irene. et al. 2002. “Helping struggling readers make sense of reading” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association

Gunning, Thomas. 1998. Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Hart,B. & Risley, T. 1995. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Maria, Katherine. 1990. Reading comprehension instruction: Issues and strategies. Parkton, Maryland: York Press.

Morris, Darrell. 1999. The Howard Street tutoring manual: Teaching at-risk readers in the primary grades. New York: Guilford Press.


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Sources

National Reading Panel. 2000. Report of the National Reading Panel:Teaching children to read – Reports of the subgroups. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Pub. No. 00-4764.

Oczkus, L. 2003. Reciprocal Teaching at Work. Delaware: International Reading Association.

Palinscar, A. & Brown. A. 1986. “Interactive teaching to promote learning from text.” Reading Teacher 39, April, pp.771-777.

Pearson, D., & Gallagher, M. 1983. “The instruction of reading comprehension.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8:3, pp. 317-344.


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Sources

Reutzel, D., Camperell, K., & Smith, J. 2002. “Hitting the wall: Helping struggling readers comprehend” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Smith, Margaret. 1999. “Teaching comprehension from a multisensory perspective” in Birsh, Judith, Ed. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Baltimore: Brooks.

Stahl, K. “Proof, Practice, and promise: Comprehension strategy instruction in the primary grades.” The Reading Teacher Vol.57. No.7, April 2004

Stahl,S. & Nagy, William. Teaching Word Meanings. Lawrence Ehrlbaum Assoc., 2006.


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Sources

Stahl, K. and McKenna, M. Reading Research at Work. New York: Guilford Press. 2006

Spires, H., & Stone, P. “The directed note taking activity: A self-questioning approach.” Journal of Reading, 33:1, pp. 36-39.

Sweet, A., & Snow, C. 2002. “Reconceptualizing reading comprehension” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Hiebert E. and Kamil, M. 2006 Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Lawrence Ehrlbaum Assoc.

Block & Pressley. 2002 Comprehension Instruction. Guilford Press.


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Module 3: Comprehension

Extended text discussion


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Engaging Students in Extended DiscussionKey Questions

  • How do you engage ALL students in discussions about text?

  • How do you ensure that the level of discussion pushes students to higher levels of understanding?

  • Is there a particular questioning hierarchy/model that works for you?

  • Do you use whole-group, small-group, or a combination of both to engage students in textual discussions?


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Why stick to Blooms when the whole world is Moving to Webb’s?Bloom’s is logical.Let’s take a look.


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Bloom’s Taxonomy


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Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • Knowledge – You must KNOW key vocabulary, concepts, ideas, people, etc., in order to understand the ideas presented in a text.

  • Comprehension – You must UNDERSTAND the basic ideas and literal meaning of the text before you can interpret the author’s objectives, the hidden meanings, etc.

  • Application – You must be able to apply the ideas to your own world and experience to have a frame of reference for the text.

  • Analysis – You cannot understand the author’s purpose or the main idea unless you first take the text apart and study it. Have you ever distributed a text to students and the first response was, “I don’t get this.” (That’s because knowledge through analysis has yet to occur.)

  • Synthesis – Once you have taken the text apart, you are in a better position to pull all the ideas together to determine the main idea or author’s purpose.

  • Evaluation – You must study all aspects of a document before you can intelligently make judgments about the author’s message.


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Simplifying Blooms for Use in Discussions

  • Teach and practice Bloom’s with students in your classroom.

  • Simplify Bloom’s for use in the classroom.

  • Encourage students to ask three kinds of questions about text:

    • (1) Questions about things you don’t know or don’t understand. (Knowledge and Comprehension)

    • (2) Questions that encourage deeper understanding of the text (Application, Analysis, Synthesis)

    • (3) Questions that provoke personal interest or that reflect your own curiosity (Application, Evaluation)


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Developing Questions for Extended Discussions

What do you do to ensure that the level of questioning that occurs in your classroom requires higher level thinking of your students? Consider the questions you ask, as well as questions asked by your students.

Discuss at your table and be prepared to share.


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Extended Text Discussion ActivityGretchen Bertram, Deerlake Middle School


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Practicum Review


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next meeting:February 15, 2012Chiles High school


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