J. Maassen
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J. Maassen. CINMS. California’s Gold: Using ecological and collaborative research to inform fisheries management strategies for the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Sarah Teck, Sarah Rathbone, Nick Shears, Rebecca Toseland, Scott Hamilton, Jenn Caselle and Steve Gaines.

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Cinms

J. Maassen

CINMS

California’s Gold: Using ecological and collaborative research to inform fisheries management strategies for the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanusSarah Teck, Sarah Rathbone, Nick Shears, Rebecca Toseland, Scott Hamilton, Jenn Caselle and Steve Gaines

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, [email protected]


California s gold

California’s Gold

incabrain.com

San Francisco

Santa Barbara

~34°N

~120°W

Santa Barbara

San Miguel

Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa

Channel Islands

Anacapa

25 km


California s gold1

California’s Gold

(5th largest fishery)

~66% is harvested from here

incabrain.com

  • ~52% is landed here

Santa Barbara

San Miguel

Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa

Anacapa

25 km


Sea urchin fishery in california

Sea Urchin Fishery in California

Data: CDF&G


Sea urchin fishery in california1

Sea Urchin Fishery in California

Data: CDF&G


Cinms

Data: CDF&G


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89 mm N CA; seasonal limit # days per week

76 min size limit

Moratorium on permits

83 mm S CA; seasonal limit # days per week

El Niño

↓ Japanese economy

↑ market competition

El Niño

El Niño

Data: CDF&G


Cinms

89 mm N CA; seasonal limit # days per week

76 min size limit

Moratorium on permits

83 mm S CA; seasonal limit # days per week

El Niño

↓ Japanese economy

↑ market competition

El Niño

El Niño

Data: CDF&G


Motivation

Motivation

  • Status of the stock unknown

  • Collect baseline information — precautionary approach

  • Integrate ecological, economic, and fisheries data to improve management

  • Can yields or profits increase with different management?


Quality not just quantity and size

Quality, not just quantity and size

  • fished species:

    • population size

    • individual size

  • urchins:

    • gonad quality

      • time (seasons)

      • space (islands)

Objective: temporal and spatial variability of gonad quality  fisheries management


Steep temperature gradient

Steep temperature gradient

(Blanchette et al 2007)


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Steep biotic gradient

S. purpuratus

  • Sites deforested by purple urchins~33-87% of the time

    (Shears in prep, National Park Service-Kelp Forest Monitoring data 1985-2007)

2007 purple abundance

COMPETITOR

Macrocystis pyrifera

RESOURCE

by Scott Gietler


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>400 boats surveyed

Dec 2008-present

Port sampling

location, effort, landings, GSI, price…

Objective: temporal and spatial variability of gonad quality  fisheries management


Gonad quality size texture and color

Gonad quality (size, texture and color)

P=0.0045

R2=0.71


Gonad quality is highly variable

Gonad quality is highly variable

boats=196

urchins=2190


Gonad quality is predicable

Gonad quality is predicable

mean GSI/month


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  • no diff. AMONG ISLANDS:

  • (1) mean (2) phase shift (3) period


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  • Amplitude of SCI differs

P=0.0250 *

P=0.0016 **


Why does amplitude vary spatially

Why does amplitude vary spatially?

  • Gonad quality is governed by physiological response to environment and ecology

    • Temperature

      • higher metabolism in warmer water

         faster somatic growth?

    • Food quality and availability

      • less kelp in warmer water and with competitors (purples)

         less allocation to reproduction?


Fishery implications

Fishery implications

  • Optimal profits to harvest

    • SMI/SRI before reproduce (high productivity here)

    • SCI after reproduce (lower productivity here)


Next steps

Next steps…

  • Examine fishermen behavior—are they fishing optimally? (landing receipt data)

  • Bioeconomic model—How will urchin populations and fishery profits respond to various management regimes?

    • ex: Seasonal quota (TAC) or effort ; property rights (TURFs)

    • Optimal harvest strategy over time and space

    • Feasible harvest strategy within this fishery


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THANKS TO…

  • Commercial Fishermen of Santa Barbara: urchin divers, H. Liquornik, S. Mutz

  • Lab assistants: M. Adams, A. Alger, G. Alongi, K. Asanion, M. Bogeberg, E. Casas, D. Cooper, M. Hunt, S. Meinhold, W. Meinhold, A. Poppenwimer, J. Roh, R. Shen, T. Shultz, A. Stroud, K. Treiberg, O. Turnross, A. Wong,

  • PISCO dive team: K. Davis, A. Parsons-Field, E. Nickisch, J. Benson, P. Carlson, L. Hesla, E. Hessell, C. Lantz, JA Macfarlan, C. Pierre, D. Salazar, B. Selden, A. Soccodato, N. Spindel, S. Windell,

  • EEMB/Bren: Gaines lab, Lenihan lab

  • J. Lorda, L. Pecquerie, H. Salgado, B. Broitman


Extra slides

Extra slides….


Management challenge

Management challenge

gonad

quality

time

peak quality

trough quality


Harvesting in different areas

Harvesting in different areas

Reef 1

gonad

quality

Reef 2

time


Harvesting peaks in different areas

Harvesting peaks in different areas

Reef 1

Reef 2

gonad

quality

time


Percent gonad is higher in the west

Percent gonad is higher in the west

32 sites summer 2009

27 sites summer 2010

a

a

9.5%

9.5%

Santa Barbara

c

b

6.7%

5.6%

Santa Cruz

Anacapa

San Miguel

Santa Rosa


Temperature anomalies

Temperature anomalies


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Purple urchin abundance 2007

Red urchin landings 1985-2005

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM, CDFG data


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Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO)

ecosystem research and monitoring (fish and benthic subtidal sampling)

32 sites summer 2009

27 sites summer 2010


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III. Ecology

What drives variability in

red urchin populations

over time and space?

Santa Barbara

  • Regression model to predict GSI

    • Temperature, abiotic factors

    • Reserve versus fished

    • Community data

San Miguel

Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa

Anacapa


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Port sampling fished sites


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Long-term (1985-2007)

E Santa Cruz and Anacapa

kelp

Density (m-2)

purple urchins

Density (m-2)

red urchins

Biomass (gm-2)

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM data


Cinms

Long-term (1985-2007)

E Santa Cruz and Anacapa

kelp

Density (m-2)

purple urchins

Density (m-2)

red urchins

Biomass (gm-2)

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM data


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Long-term (1985-2007)

E Santa Cruz and Anacapa

kelp

Density (m-2)

  • Red urchins have persistently higher biomass inside of the reserves.

  • Reproductive output is ~4 times higher in kelp forests versus urchin barrens

purple urchins

Density (m-2)

red urchins

Biomass (gm-2)

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM data


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  • manipulate ecology of a managed area to increase profits

  • Purple urchin removals in historical red urchin fishing grounds?

  • kelp restoration


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New strategy for fishing sea urchins

  • To take advantage of the high quality roe at the time when and locations where it is available, fish more in winter and in places where roe is of the highest quality.

    • to increase profits to urchin fishermen

    • to benefit sea urchin populations


Gsi increases during regrowth

GSI increases during regrowth

west

central

east

spawning

gonadal regrowth


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How do urchins and fishery profits respond to various management regimes?

  • IV. Management


Assess management strategies

Assess management strategies

  • Seasonal quota (TAC)

  • Individual quotas

  • Minimum size limits

  • Maximum size limits

  • Limited entry

  • Area closures

  • TURFs

  • Combination of various strategies


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Quality varies seasonally

% gonad of whole body weight

{

}

west

central

east


Reserves may affect gonad quality

Reserves may affect gonad quality

(Behrens & Lafferty 2004, Lafferty & Behrens 2005)


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