Radio LANs
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Radio LANs. A Presentation by Radio Spectrum Management Department (TRC). Presentation Scope. Introduction to Radio LAN topologies. Radio LAN standards. Spectrum usage and Radio LAN regulations. Power limitations. Actual market implementations case studies.

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Radio lans

Radio LANs

A Presentation by

Radio Spectrum Management Department


Radio lans

Presentation Scope

  • Introduction to Radio LAN topologies.

  • Radio LAN standards.

  • Spectrum usage and Radio LAN regulations.

  • Power limitations.

  • Actual market implementations case studies.

  • Scaling up WLANs: Wireless MANs.

  • WMAN standards.

  • Third Generation wireless technologies.

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Radio LAN Topologies

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Peer To Peer

  • Also called: Ad Hoc.

  • Limited coverage area.

  • Everyone should be within reach from everyone else.

  • Simplex communication.

Wireless “Cell”

Wireless Clients


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Wireless “Cell”

Wireless “Cell”

Channel X

Channel Y

wired Backbone

Access Point

Access Point

Wireless Clients

Wireless Clients

  • Clients communicate to each other via the AP.

  • Infrastructure offers larger coverage area than Peer-To-Peer does.

  • Provides multi-cell structure.

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Wireless Bridging

  • Layer-2 LAN-to-LAN connectivity.

  • With proper design, distance can reach up to 40 km.

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Spectrum Usage

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United States

  • Radio LANs operate in the following unlicensed bands:

  • 902 – 928 MHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band. (Not used anymore for Radio LANs).

  • 2400 – 2483.5 MHz ISM band.

  • Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) bands:

  • - 5.15 – 5.25 GHz.

  • - 5.25 – 5.35 GHz.

  • 5.725 – 5.850 GHz ISM band.

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ISM Bands

  • ISM Bands are defined according to RR5-28, Article 5.150.

  • Radiocommunication services operating within these bands must accept harmful interference which may be caused by other ISM applications.

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  • The following unlicensedbands are approved for Radio LANs operation as defined by CEPT1:

  • 2400 – 2483.5 MHz, on ISM basis.

  • 5.15 – 5.35 GHz.

  • 5.470 – 5.725 GHz.

  • 1. European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations

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  • The following bands are currently approved for the

  • operation of Radio LANs, on non-interfering basis1:

  • 2400 – 2483.5 MHz.

  • 5.15 – 5.25 GHz.

  • 5.725 – 5.850 GHz.

  • 1. a) A user does not have the right to claim protection against interference from other Radio LAN users.

  • b) A Radio LAN user must take all necessary measures to avoid interfering with other users.

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TRC Regulations

(cont )

  • For devices utilizing <10mW, only type approval is needed.

  • Otherwise, spectrum licensing is also needed. Output EIRP is restricted to 100mW.

  • Licensed for confined area of a building usage.

  • 3. Outdoor connectivity (beyond the confined area of building & 100mW scope ) may be granted on a case-by-case basis – to study the case depending on the availability of the frequency.

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Radio LAN Spectrum Bands










North America



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Radio LAN


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IEEE Standards

  • IEEE originally formed a committee (802) concerned in networking technologies.

  • IEEE 802.11 is a sub committee concerned with Wireless LAN technologies.

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IEEE 802.11

  • Final draft issued in 1997.

  • Standard is approved by FCC, ETSI.

  • Band of operation: 2400 – 2483.5 MHz.

  • Technologies: - Radio (RF).

  • - Infra Red (IR).

  • The standard defines the use of FHSS and DSSS.

  • Modulation: 1. BPSK @ bit rate = 1Mbps.

  • 2. QPSK @ bit rate = 2 Mbps.

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IEEE 802.11b

  • Final draft was issued in 1999.

  • Standard approved by FCC, ETSI.

  • Band of operation: 2400 – 2483.5 MHz.

  • Offers three 22-MHznon-overlapping channels.

  • Defines only one RF technology: DSSS.

  • Bit rate up to 11Mbps, using CCK modulation.

  • Backward compatible with IEEE 802.11.

  • Channels: - North America: 11 channel.

  • - Europe: 13 Channels.

  • - Japan: 14 Channels.

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802.11b Channel Distribution

Center frequencies of channels are separated by 5MHz
















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802.11b channel sets in different regulatory domains

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IEEE 802.11a

  • Final draft issued in 2000.

  • Standard approved by FCC.

  • Band of operation: 5.15 – 5.25 GHz & 5.25 – 5.35 GHz.

  • Defines the use of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).

  • Bit rate up to 54Mbps using 64-QAM modulation.

  • Offers up to 8 20-MHz non-overlapping channels.

  • Channels: - FCC: 8 channels.

  • - TELEC (Japan): 4 channels.

  • - ETSI (Europe): uses another standard.

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802.11a channel sets in different regulatory domains

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IEEE 802.11g

  • Expected to be finalized by the end of 2003.

  • Operates in the same band as IEEE 802.11b.

  • Offers three non-overlapping channels.

  • Bit rate up to 54Mbps using OFDM.

  • Offers backward compatibility with IEEE 802.11b.

  • Interoperability is not yet guaranteed.

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ETSI Standards

ETSI: European Telecommunication Standards Institution

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  • HIPERLAN = High Performance LAN.

  • Band of operation: 5.15 – 5.30 GHZ.

  • Bit rate up to 20Mbps using FSK and GMSK modulation.

  • Offers five non-overlapping channels:

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  • Standard’s first draft in 2001.

  • Band of operation:

  • - lower band: 5.15 – 5.35 GHz.

  • - upper band: 5.470 – 5.725 GHz.

  • Channel spacing = 20MHz.

  • Bit rate up to 54Mbps using OFDM.

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Channeling Scheme

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  • Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity.

  • WECA: Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance.

  • WECA issues the Wi-Fi Certificate for interoperability and general performance of Radio LAN products.

  • Wi-Fi certifies IEEE compliant standards (802.11a, 802.11b).

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Market Implementations & Case Studies

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International Vendors

  • Among the global vendors of Radio LAN products:

  • Cisco Aironet, Lucent Technolgies, Nortel, 3Com, Intel, Linksys, Intermec, Proxim, D-Link.

  • They offer WLAN product including Access Points, Wireless Client Cards, Wireless Bridges, antennas … etc.

  • WLAN products are assessed according to their roaming capabilities, load balancing and radio features.

  • Calypso Wireless Inc. offers a video phone which operates on cellular networks as well as IEEE 802.11 Hot-Spots.

  • opportunities to integrate wireless access solutions

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Carriers offer remote access service from Hot-Spots

  • AT&T will begin offering remote wireless access to its virtual private network services from more than 2,000 access points in at least 20 countries in the fourth quarter.

  • AT&T will adopt the readily available wireless Wi-Fi services form GRIC Inc.

  • MCI (formerly WorldCom Inc.) will be also offering Wi-Fi VPN services, as well as wireless Internet access to its customers next fall through a deal with Wayport Inc.

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Example: AT&T connects Hot-Spots to Corporate Networks via VPNs.

Corporate Network

World Wide Web




Wireless Access

VPN: Virtual Private Network

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Public Access Hot Spots

  • Swisscom founded a new subsidiary: Swisscom Eurospot for the purpose of installing hot spots across the continent.

  • IEEE 802.11b hot spots will be installed in railway stations, airports, restaurants, libraries, … etc.

  • Swisscom Eurospot has developed an innovative billing system to be used with this service: prepaid cards, user accounts.

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McDonalds goes wireless!

  • McDonalds signed an agreement to deploy Wi-Fi service to 140 stores in Singapore.

  • A spokeswoman for McDonald's Australia said the company plans to offer Wi-Fi access in all 725 McDonald's in that country.

  • Starbucks have already established Hot-Spots in their Cafes.

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Power Limitations

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  • In the 2.4GHz band:

  • max TX power = 30dBm (1W).

  • max EIRP (point-to-multipoint) = 36dBm (4W).

  • max EIRP (point-to-point):

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(cont )

  • In the 5.2 GHz band:

  • max TX power = 17dBm (50mW).

  • max EIRP = 23dBm (200mW).

  • Only indoor operation is permitted.

  • In the 5.3 GHz band:

  • max TX power = 24dBm (250mW).

  • max EIRP = 30dBm (1W).

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(cont )

  • In the 5.8 GHz band:

  • max TX power = 30dBm (1W).

  • max EIRP (point-to-multipoint) = 36dBm (4W).

  • max EIRP (point-to-point) = No Limits!

  • FCC restricts the use of antennas to only a unique set of antennas.

  • Reference Rules:

  • FCC Wireless Regulations 15.407 and 15.247.

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Example: FCC Regulation

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  • In the 2.4 GHz band:

  • max transmit power = 50mW (17dBm).

  • max EIRP = 100mW (20dBm).

  • In the 5 GHz bands:

  • max EIRP = 30dBm (1W).

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  • in the 2.4 GHz band:

  • maximum EIRP is 10mW.


  • in the 2.4 GHz band:

  • maximum EIRP = 10mW/MHz (10dBm/MHz).

  • In a 22MHz channel, maximum EIRP = 220mW (23.4dBm).

  • in the 5 GHz bands:

  • maximum EIRP = 10mW/MHz (10dBm/MHz).

  • In a 20MHz channel, maximum EIRP = 200mW (23dBm).

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TRC Regulations

  • The following regulations are currently adopted in Jordan:

  • Maximum permissible EIRP is 20dBm (100mW) in the 2.4GHz band.

  • Maximum EIRP in the 5GHz band is 23dBm (200mW).

  • Spectrum Licensing is needed for Radio LANs.

  • Only indoor confined building coverage is permitted.

  • Outdoor connectivity is permitted on case-by-case basis.

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TRC Regulations

(cont )

  • Licensing Fees:

  • 1. For Home / Small Office Use1, licensing fees are 15 JDs paid only once.

  • 2. Otherwise, licensing fees are 15 JDs / Access Point, paid annually.

  • 3. In the case a wireless outdoor bridging link is approved by TRC, licensing fees shall be calculated according to the approved Spectrum Tariffs.

  • 4. Licensing Application fee for the first time is 5 JDs.

  • 5. Renewal of Licensing application fee is 5 JDs.

1. A Radio LAN system employing only one Access Point, or one peer-to-peer (Ad Hoc) network.

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TRC Regulations

(cont )

  • Storage and Exhibition:

  • Merchants and shop owners are allowed to import Radio LAN products for the purpose of storing / exhibiting them.

  • A shop owner may go through licensing procedures on behalf of the end-user (buyer).

See Licensing Guidelines

See Storage/Exhibition forms

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Why license?

Licensing Radio LANs is meant to be a procedural measure to control the random manner of Radio LAN dispersal.

Why control Radio LAN dispersal?

Spectrum assignments for Radio LANs, 3G and BWA are not stable yet. In developed country, it is relatively acceptable to replace old systems with new ones. In developing countries, it is NOT!

How will licensing achieve this goal?

- Licensing will comprise a formal way to assure that no excessive power is emitted in the spectrum bands.

- Licensing will help identify the users and the location of uses of Radio LANs.

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Why Confine to a Building?

  • Because of current restrictions imposed by JTC’s monopoly.

  • Datacomm services shall be only offered by JTC until the end of 2004.

  • To restrict the outdoor propagation of power. This should be considered as a precautionary procedure.

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Scaling Up

Wireless Access

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What are WMANs?

  • WMAN: Wireless Metropolitan Area Network.

  • They are meant to provide wireless access for large residential areas.

  • They are designed to provide Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) services.

  • BWA offers integrated high-speed links supporting data, voice and video communication.

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Proprietary BWA Solutions

  • Companies such as Proxim, Aperto Networks, Alvarion, IP Wireless, provide proprietary Fixed BWA solutions.

  • Solutions are offered in the bands: 2.5 GHz, 3.5GHz and 5.8 GHz (license-exempt in USA).

  • FBWA solutions are Line of Sight and Near Line of Sight technologies.

  • There is a need to standardize BWA solutions to assure interoperability.

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WMAN Standards

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IEEE 802.16

  • IEEE 802.16 is WMAN standard offering BWA services.

  • Completed in 10/2001, published in 4/2002.

  • The standard addresses the frequency band: 10 – 66 GHz, with focus on the 23- 43 GHz band.

  • It comprises a “Last Mile” solution. It is a suitable cost-effective solution to replace copper and fiber last mile connections.

  • Utilizes 20 to 28 MHz channels, with data rates up to 134Mbps.

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IEEE 802.16

(cont )

  • IEEE 802.16 employs a multi-cellular structure.

  • Full duplex: a hybrid TDD/FDD duplexing scheme.

  • Standard’s physical layer offers adaptive modulation according to the link’s status.

  • The standard represents an excellent alternative for current wired local loops deployed in data communication services.

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IEEE 802.16a

  • IEEE 802.11a is an amendment to the original standard.

  • Completed in 11/2002, approved in 1/2003.

  • 802.16a came to address the following:

  • 1. BWA Services in the 2 – 11 GHz band.

  • 2. the standard tackles the Non-Line-of-Sight applications.

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IEEE 802.16a

(cont )

  • IEEE 802.16a offers 20 – 28 MHz channels, at a link speed up to 134Mbps.

  • Three air-interfaces are defined:

  • 1. WMAN-SC2: single carrier modulation format.

  • 2. WMAN-OFDM: TDMA access scheme.

  • 3. WMAN-OFDM: OFDMA access scheme.

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Bit Rate Shifting in 802.16a

Bit rate shifting is achieved using adaptive modulation. When you are near to the BS, you are offered high speed, when you’re far, reliability decreases, hence you’re offered lower speed.

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Proposed Spectrum Assignments for 802.116

  • IEEE 802.16 is a Point-to-Multipoint technology, hence spectrum assignments are being considered in the LMDS / MMDS frequency plans.

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802.16 VS 802.11

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802.16 VS 802.11

(cont )

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802.16 VS 802.11

(cont )

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802.16 VS 802.11

(cont )

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  • WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, based in San Diego.

  • The WiMAX alliance includes: Intel, Airspan Networks, Alvarion, Aperto Networks, Ensemble Communications, Fujitsu Microelectronics, America Inc., Nokia, Proxim, Wi-LAN Inc.

  • The WIMAX alliance is dedicating its efforts to back the 802.16 standard in order to start shipping products by the end of 2004.

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  • First draft in 2001.

  • operates in the band: 40.5 – 43.5 GHz.

  • Offers connectivity solutions to residential areas at speeds up to 25 Mbps.

  • Designed to integrate into UMTS, IP and ATM core networks.

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  • Standard still underway.

  • Spectrum allocation: @ the 17 GHz band.

  • Offers short-range very high-speed wireless links between HIPERLANs or HIPER ACESS networks.

  • Bit rate: up to 155Mbps.

  • range: up to 150m.

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Jordanian Market

  • With the expiry of the JTC monopoly by the end of 2004, Data Communications service providers will start considering wireless solutions to replace wired local loops.

  • The demand for WLAN implementations will also witness an increase. Hotels, hospitals, universities, airports, companies having large warehouses & hangars, will all seriously consider it.

  • As 802.16a addresses the 2 – 11 GHz band, more careful planning is required when approving outdoor / bridging wireless links in the 2.4 and 5 GHz bands.

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The Future

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Third Generation

  • Future communication systems will provide integrated voice, video and data services in one service bundle.

  • Networks will tend to converge into one unified infrastructure. Internet, web services, voice services, and packet data services together.

  • Focus on mobility, high-speed links and reliability issues.

  • Numerous technologies have evolved to help migrate current 2G systems to 3G systems.

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ITU Standards

  • ITU took on the role of standardizing 3G technologies.

  • IMT-2000: International Mobile Service.

  • It is the ITU’s umbrella name for 3G.

  • 3GPP: Third Generation Partnership Projects.

  • National and regional standards bodies are collaborating in 3G projects.

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IMT-2000 Standards

  • IMT-SC (Single Carrier): Enhanced Data GSM Environment.

  • IMT-MC (Multi Carrier) CDMA: CDMA2000, evolution of IS-95 CDMA (cdmaOne).

  • IMT-DS (Direct Spread): W-CDMA UMTS

  • Wideband CDMA Universal Mobile Telecom System.

  • IMT-TC (Time Code CDMA): including TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous CDMA).

  • IMT-FT (FDMA/TDMA): based on DECT legacy.

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Wireless Networks Convergence

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3G Services Vs. Radio LAN Services

  • Radio LANs are not equipped to cover wide areas. 3G services are scalable to cover very wide areas.

  • Radio LAN technology may support pedestrian mobility but with low performance. 3G service are mobile services at speeds up to vehicular speeds.

  • Radio LANs are a “nearest point” services. 3G are an “everywhere” services.

  • Initial investment in Radio LAN public access systems is very low compared to 3G systems. However, tending to extend Radio LAN coverage to 3G coverage limits will be very costly.

  • Radio LANs offer data rate which are up to 26 times those offered by 3G !

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