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Westward Expansion and Industrialization. Change and Conflict in the American West. Between 1865-1900 (25 year period) the western frontier (West of the Mississippi River) was divided into: 18 new states 4 territories: Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma

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Westward Expansion and Industrialization

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Westward expansion and industrialization l.jpg

Westward Expansion and Industrialization


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Change and Conflict in the American West

  • Between 1865-1900 (25 year period) the western frontier (West of the Mississippi River) was divided into:

    • 18 new states

    • 4 territories: Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma

  • Prior to this period and before the end of the Civil War in 1865 the only inhabitants on the frontier were:

    • Indians (300,000)

    • Spanish Missionaries (Southwest)

    • Mormons (Salt Lake)

    • Trappers- Mountain Men

    • Buffalo- 15 million


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The Great Plains

  • By 1890 the land had been settled by:

    • Farmers

    • Ranchers (cattle, sheep)

    • Miners (gold, silver, copper)

    • Merchants, Bankers, and Railroads

  • Two major obstacles slowed the development of the frontier:

    • Geography and Climate

    • Native Americans


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Great Plains development…

  • Development was assisted by:

    • Military force

    • Government land give-a-ways

    • federal/state loans to railroads

    • Investment by eastern and foreign bankers

    • Disease


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Native Americans

  • Treatment of Native Americans:

    • Reservation Policy- remove to unwanted areas

    • Americanize- assimilate to American culture- abandon tribal ways

  • Sand Creek Massacre- 1864- 150 Native American slaughtered by the US Army (mostly women and children)

  • Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse- two leaders who refused to give up fighting for their land

  • Battle of Wounded Knee- US Army killed 300 unarmed Native Americans and left their bodies to freeze

  • Bitter end of the Indian Wars…

  • Factors that led to the removal of the Indians:

    • Railroads

    • Disease

    • Alcohol

    • Extermination of the Buffalo


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People moving West…..

  • 1887 Dawes Act- Government act that forced Indians onto reservations

    1. broke up tribal governments

    2. Assimilation- abandon native customs, traditions, way of life

    3. Land allotments- 160 acres of land developed over 25 years before title given

    4. Indians dealt with as individuals

  • Homestead Acts- gave land away to white settlers

    • 160 acres of land

    • $10 fee

    • develop in 5 years for title give

  • Most land went to:

    • Speculators- real estate agents who sold land at higher prices for a profit

    • Railroads were given prime land


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Hardships of the Great Plains

  • Extreme Hardships

    • Droughts

    • Floods

    • Fires

    • Blizzards

    • Locust plagues

    • Outlaw Raids

    • Indian Raids

    • Disease

  • Settlers Meet Challenges of the Plains

    • Homes- dugout (home dug into the side of a hill)

      • soddy (stacked blocks of prairie turf)

    • Clothes- women had to shear sheep and card wool to make clothes


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Technical Support for Farmers

  • Barbed Wire- prevented animals from trampling crops and wandering off

  • Reaper- sped up harvest saving crops from inclement weather

  • Steel Plow- made planting more efficient in root filled soil

  • Steel Windmill- helped with unpredictable rainfall (crop dehydration) by bringing up underground water for irrigation


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Efforts to help farmers

  • Morrill Land Grant Acts (1862 & 1890)- enacted by Congress

    • gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges

  • Hatch Act (1887)- federal agricultural research stations

  • Established…

  • Agricultural experiment stations to inform farmers of new developments


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Economic Problems

Cycle of Debt for farmers

  • Machinery-Expensive and usually required farmers to barrow money

    1. As prices went up farmers would make money to pay off loans

    2. As prices dropped they would try and plant as many crops as possible to make up the difference

  • Farmers would often barrow money to purchase more land to grow more crops to make more money in order to make money to pay off debts (never ending cycle)

    Shipping Problems of Farmers

    • -Farmers were at the mercy of the Railroads

    • - Railroads established rates for western farmers that were higher than the east

    • - Railroads were monopolies (could charge what they wanted because there was no competition


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Farmers Organize…

  • Farmers Organize to solve their Own Problems

  • Grange(farmer organization)- Oliver Hudson Kelly (1867) patrons of Husbandry

    • Provided a social outlet for farm families

    • Eventually began a fight against the railroads

  • Farmers Alliances- included not only farmers but others who sympathized with the situation

  • Colored Farmers Alliance


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Populism

  • Populism- movement of the people

  • Populist Party (People’s Party)- political effort of farmers to use politics to solve their problems

  • Party Platform:

    • Increase money supply

    • Graduated income tax

    • Federal Loan Program

    • U.S. Senate elections by popular vote

    • Single term for president and vice president

    • Secret ballots

    • 8 hour work day

    • Immigration restrictions

  • Populist Party died out as the – Democratic party came about


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Silver or Gold

  • Bimetallism

    • A monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks

    • People who supported this were known as “Silverites”

  • Gold Standard

    • A monetary system in which money is backed entirely by gold

    • Supported by President Cleveland

    • Known as the “Gold Bugs”


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1986 election

--William McKinley- Nominated by the Republican party and committed to the Gold Standard. An Ohioan

--William Jennings Bryan- Nominated by the Democratic Party and committed to Bimetallism

  • Gold Bugs

    • Bankers and Businessman

    • Wanted Gold Standard

    • Wanted less money in circulation

  • Result: Deflation=Prices fall= Value of money increases= Fewer people have money

  • Silverites

    • Farmers and Laborers

    • Wanted Bimetallism

    • Wanted more money in circulation

  • Result: Inflation=Prices rise=Value of money decreases=More people have money


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End of Populism

  • William Jennings Bryan had a tough Campaign and had to overcome people’s fear of inflation with his Silverite Plan

  • Bryan was defeated by McKinley by over 500,000 votes

  • With Bryan’s defeat populism collapsed


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The Expansion of Industry

  • The Growth of Industry

  • •By 1920s, U.S. is world’s leading

  • industrial power, due to:

  • - wealth of natural resources

  • - government support for business

  • - growing urban population

  • Black Gold

  • Pre-European arrival, Native Americans make fuel, medicine from oil

  • 1859, Edwin L. Drake successfully uses steam engine to drill for oil

  • Petroleum-refining industry first makes kerosene, then gasoline


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STEEL

Bessemer Steel Process

  • Abundant deposits of coal, iron spur industry

  • Bessemer process puts air into iron to remove carbon to make steel

  • Later open-hearth process makes steel from scrap or raw materials

    New Uses for Steel

  • Steel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machines

  • Changes construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel-framed skyscrapers


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An Age of Inventions

  • Numerous new inventions change the

    landscape, life, work

    The Power of Electricity

  • 1876, Thomas Alva Edison establishes first research laboratory

  • - 1880, patents incandescent light bulb

  • - creates system for electrical production, distribution

  • Electricity changes business; by 1890, runs numerous machines

  • Becomes available in homes; encourages invention of appliances

  • Allows manufacturers to locate plants anyplace; industry grows


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Inventions Change Lifestyles

  • Christopher Sholes invents typewriter in 1867

  • 1876,Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Watson introduces telephone

  • Office work changes; by 1910, women are 40% of clerical workers

  • Inventions impact factory work, lead to industrialization

    - clothing factories hire many women

  • Industrialization makes jobs easier; improves standard of living

    - by 1890, average workweek 10 hours shorter

    - as consumers, workers regain power in market

  • Some laborers think mechanization reduces value of human worker


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Railroads Encourage Growth

  • Rails make local transit reliable, westward expansion possible

  • Government makes land grants,

    loans to railroads

    - to help settle West

    - to develop country

    A National Network

  • 1859, railroads extend west of Missouri River

  • 1869, first transcontinental railroad completed, spans the nation


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RAILROAD TIME

  • Railroads offer land, adventure, fresh start to many

  • People of diverse backgrounds build railroad under harsh conditions:

    - Central Pacific hires Chinese immigrants

    - Union Pacific, Irish immigrants, Civil War vets

  • Accidents, disease disable and kill thousands every year

  • Railroad Time

  • 1869, C. F. Dowd proposes dividing earth’s surface into 24 time zones

  • 1883, U.S. railroads, towns adopt time zones

  • 1884, international conference sets world zones, uses railroad time

    - Congress adopts in 1918


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New Towns and Markets

  • Railroads require great supply of materials, parts

  • Iron, coal, steel, lumber, glass industries grow to meet demand

  • Railroads link isolated towns, promote trade, interdependence

  • Nationwide network of suppliers, markets develops

  • Towns specialize, sell large quantities of their product nationally

  • New towns grow along railroad lines


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Pullman and CréditMobilier

  • 1880, George M. Pullman builds railcar factory on Illinois prairie

  • Pullman provides for workers: housing, doctors, shops, sports field

  • Company tightly controls residents to ensure stable work force

  • Wish for control, profit leads some railroad magnates to corruption

  • Union Pacific stockholders form construction company, Crédit Mobilier

  • - overpay for laying track, pocket profits

  • Republican politicians implicated; reputation of party tarnished


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Railroad Abuses and Granger Laws

  • Farmers angry over perceived railroad corruption

    - railroads sell government lands to businesses, not settlers

    - fix prices, keep farmers in debt

    - charge different customers different rates

  • Grangers sponsor state, local political candidates

  • Press for laws to protect farmers’ interests

  • Munn v. Illinois—Supreme Court upholds states’ right to regulate RR

  • Sets principle that federal government can regulate private industry


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Interstate Commerce Act and Panic and Consolidation

Interstate Commerce Act

  • 1886, Supreme Court: states cannot set rates on interstate commerce

  • Public outrage leads to Interstate Commerce Actof 1887

    - federal government can supervise railroads

    - establishes Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

    Panic and Consolidation

  • Legal battle with railroads; difficult for ICC to take action

  • Abuses, mismanagement, competition almost bankrupt many railroads

  • Railroad problems contribute to panic of 1893, depression

  • By mid-1894, 25% of railroads taken over by financial companies


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Big Business

Carnegie Makes a Fortune

  • Andrew Carnegie one of first moguls to make own fortune

    New Business Strategies

  • Carnegie searches for ways to make better products more cheaply

  • Hires talented staff; offers company stock; promotes competition

  • Uses vertical integration—buys out suppliers to control materials

  • Through horizontal integration merges with competing companies

  • Carnegie controls almost entire steel industry


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Principles of Social Darwinism

  • Darwin’s theory of biological evolution: the best-adapted survive

  • •Social Darwinism, or social evolution, based on Darwin’s theory

  • •Economists use Social Darwinism to justify doctrine of laissez faire

    A New Definition of Success

  • Idea of survival, success of the most capable appeals to wealthy

  • Notion of individual responsibility in line with Protestant ethic

  • See riches as sign of God’s favor; poor must be lazy, inferior


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Growth and Consolidation

  • Businesses try to control industry

    with mergers— buy out competitors

  • Buy all others to form monopolies—control production, wages, prices

  • Holding companies buy all the stock of other companies

  • John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, forms trust

    - trustees run separate companies as if one


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Rockefeller and the “Robber Barons”

  • Rockefeller profits by paying low wages, underselling others

    - when controls market, raises prices

  • Critics call industrialists robber barons

    - industrialists also become philanthropists

    Sherman Antitrust Act

  • Government thinks expanding corporations stifle free competition

  • Sherman Antitrust Act: trust illegal if interferes with free trade

  • Prosecuting companies difficult; government stops enforcing act

    Business Boom Bypasses the South

  • South recovering from Civil War, hindered by lack of capital

  • North owns 90% of stock in RR, most profitable Southern businesses

  • Business problems: high transport cost, tariffs, few skilled workers


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Labor Unions Emerge

  • Long Hours and Danger

  • Northern wages generally higher than Southern

  • Exploitation, unsafe conditions unite workers across regions

  • Most workers have 12 hour days, 6 day workweeks

  • - perform repetitive, mind-dulling tasks

  • - no vacation, sick leave, injury compensation

  • To survive, families need all member to work, including children

  • Sweatshops, tenement workshops often only jobs for women, children

  • - require few skills; pay lowest wages


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Early Labor Organizing

  • National Labor Union—first large-scale national organization

  • 1868, NLU gets Congress to give 8-hour day to civil servants

  • Local chapters reject blacks; Colored National Labor Union forms

  • NLU focus on linking existing local unions

  • Noble Order of the Knights of Labor open to women, blacks, unskilled

  • Knights support 8-hour day, equal pay, arbitration


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Unionism

Craft Unionism

  • Craft unions include skilled workers from one or more trades

  • Samuel Gompers helps found American Federation of Labor (AFL)

  • AFL uses collective bargaining for better wages, hours, conditions

  • AFL strikes successfully, wins higher pay, shorter workweek

    Industrial Unionism

  • ndustrial unions include skilled, unskilled workers in an industry

  • Eugene V. Debs forms American Railway Union; uses strikes


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Socialism and the IWW

  • Some labor activists turn to socialism:

    - government control of business, property

    - equal distribution of wealth

  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), or Wobblies, forms 1905

  • Organized by radical unionists, socialists; include African Americans

  • Industrial unions give unskilled workers dignity, solidarity

    Other Labor Activism in the West

  • Japanese, Mexicans form Sugar Beet and Farm Laborers’ Union in CA

  • Wyoming Federation of Labor supports Chinese, Japanese miners


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Strikes…..

  • The Great Strike of 1877

  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad strike spreads to other lines

  • Governors say impeding interstate commerce; federal troops intervene

  • The Haymarket Affair

  • 3,000 gather at Chicago’s Haymarket Square, protest police brutality

  • Violence ensues; 8 charged with inciting riot, convicted

  • Public opinion turns against labor movem


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Strikes continued…

  • The Homestead Strike

  • 1892, Carnegie Steel workers strike over pay cuts

  • Win battle against Pinkertons; National Guard reopens plant

  • Steelworkers do not remobilize for 45 years

  • The Pullman Company Strike

  • Pullman lays off 3,000, cuts wages but not rents; workers strike

  • Pullman refuses arbitration; violence ensues; federal troops sent

  • Debs jailed, most workers fired, many blacklisted


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Unions….

Women Organize

  • Women barred from many unions; unite behind powerful leaders

  • Mary Harris Jones— most prominent organizer in women’s labor

    - works for United Mine Workers

    - leads children’s march

  • Pauline Newman—organizer for International Ladies’ Garment Workers

  • 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire results in public outrage

    Management and Government Pressure Unions

  • Employers forbid unions; turn Sherman Antitrust Act against labor

  • Legal limitations cripple unions, but membership rises


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The Immigrant Experience

  • Push Factors- problems that cause people to move

  • Pull Factors- attractions that draw people to another place

  • People were pushed from Europe due to population growth, hunger, availability of land, and religious persecution

  • People were pulled to the United States because of the free democratic society, ample farmland, minerals, plains, industry (jobs), and America Letters (letters from relatives who had already migrated).


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Transportation

  • The voyage which once took 3 month now took 2 weeks due to technological advances

  • Travel was not easy on steerage( open area below the main deck) where people slept in the same room on metal beds, seasickness, spoiled food, overcrowded, and filthy toilets.


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Ellis Island

  • 1892- Ellis Island Immigration Station was built in the New York Harbor. Immigrants arriving from Europe often arrived at Ellis Island.

  • Inspections and Exams

    • Medical Inspections (6 second exam)

    • Physical examination (LHX)

    • Legal Interviews (names shortened)

    • Contract Laborers

      20 % were denied entrance and had to stay for treatment or await hearings only 2% were every deported.


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Life in the Cities

  • Main cities (industrial centers)

    • New York

    • Boston

    • Chicago

    • Cleveland

  • Population booms

  • Ethnic Cities (little Italy, China Town, etc..)


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Immigrants not welcomed

  • With a lack of education, money, and support immigrants suffered

  • Immigrants need help

    • Relatives or friends

    • Immigrant Aid Society (met in churches, groceries, or saloons)

    • Settlement house- community center that provided aid to immigrants (child care, classes, health clinics, and recreational opportunities)

    • Political bosses- powerful leaders who ran cities would help the immigrants in exchange for votes


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  • Assimilation- Americanization of immigrants

  • Nativism- Americans who disliked anyone who was not “native” born

  • 1894- Immigration Restriction League- all new arrivals had to take literacy tests- the President Vetoed it….but began to pass quota laws


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Immigration from Asia

  • Chinese seek gold, jobs, and new opportunities

  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882- shut the doors on China by prohibiting immigration from Chinese laborers for 10 years (1st time the US had restricted immigration)

  • Immigration went from 40,000 to 279 two years later


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Angel Island

  • Angel Island Immigration Station 1910- “Ellis Island of the West” San Francisco Bay, mainly used to restrict Chinese Immigrants

  • Other Immigrants

    • Japanese

    • Koreans

    • Filipinos

    • Hawaiians

  • Gentlemen's Agreement- notes between U.S. and Japan where Japanese officials agreed not to allow laborers to emigrate to the U.S.


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Immigration from North and South

  • North- French Canadians- came to US for Civil War and over 900,000 came to US after mainly from Quebec.

  • Mexico- immigrated to California and Texas to work on farms, railroads, and in mines.

    • Mexican Revolution 1910- brought many more Mexicans to the US.


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Immigrants Still Faced Discrimination

  • Racism

  • Lower Wages

  • Discrimination

  • Segregated Schools

  • Unwilling to become members of American Society


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Three Great Waves of Immigration

  • 1st Wave- 1820-1870

    • Northern and Western Europe

  • 2nd Wave- 1880-1920

    • Southern and Eastern Europe

  • 3rd Wave- 1965-present

    • End of quota system immigration from everywhere

    • 33 million/12% of the population were immigrants in 2003


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