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Radiation Safety and You. Brian Kessler Zettl Group Safety Talk September 7, 2006. Types of Radiation. Ionizing Radiation Ionization potentials of the elements range from 3.89 eV (Cs) to 24.6 eV (He) Alpha Rays – He 4 nucleas Beta Rays – electrons/positrons

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Radiation safety and you

Radiation Safety and You

Brian Kessler

Zettl Group Safety Talk

September 7, 2006


Types of radiation
Types of Radiation

  • Ionizing Radiation

    • Ionization potentials of the elements range from 3.89 eV (Cs) to 24.6 eV (He)

      • Alpha Rays – He4 nucleas

      • Beta Rays – electrons/positrons

      • X-rays and Gamma Rays - photons with λ<50 nm

  • Non-Ionizing Radiation

    • Radio waves, Micro waves, visible light

    • Neutrons – interact with nuclei

http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/html/02whatis.html


Radiation producing machines in the lab
Radiation Producing Machines in the Lab

  • Transmission Electron Microscope

    • Electrons, Secondary X-Rays

  • Scanning Electron Microscope

    • Electrons, Secondary X-Rays

  • Electron Beam Evaporator


Dosage and how to measure it
Dosage and How to Measure It

  • Units:

    • Gray (Gy) = J/kg, physical amount of energy absorbed

    • Sievert (Sv) = Q*N*Gy, biological effect of energy absorbed (1 Sv = 100 rem)

      • Quality Factor (Q) depends on the type of radiation

        • photons, electrons Q=1, Protons Q=5, Alpha particles Q=20

      • N Factor (Q) depends on the exposed area

        • Gonads, N=0.20, Colon, Lung, Stomach N=0.12, Bladder, Brain, Uterus, N = 0.05, Skin N=0.01

http://www.npl.co.uk/ionrad/quantities.html


Typical exposure
Typical Exposure

  • Significant Background Sources of Radiation

    • Cosmic Rays, Radon Gas, Naturally Occuring Isotopes, Medical Diagnostics

      • Annual Dose: 2 mSv

      • Fly LA-NY: 0.025 mSv

      • GI X-Ray Series : 2.2 mSv

http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/html/02whatis.html


Radiation danger
Radiation Danger

  • Primary Risk - Cancer

    • Risk to General Population: 20%

    • Risk to individual with 100 mSv excess exposure: 20.4%

  • Secondary Risk – Genetic Effects

    • Increased Risk of Mental Retardation in Exposed Fetuses: 0.8%

http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/html/04risks.html


How to protect yourself
How to Protect Yourself

  • ALARA – ALow As Reasonably Achievable

    • Minimize Time

    • Maximize Distance

    • Use Appropriate Shielding

      • Alpha Particles – a sheet of paper

      • Beta Particles – a sheet of metal

      • Gamma Rays – thick lead or concrete

http://www.ehs.berkeley.edu/radsafety/rpmtraininghandout.pdf


What you should do now
What You Should Do Now

  • Review and Complete Your General Employee Radiation Training through LBL:

    • http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/default.htm

  • Review Berkeley EHS Radiation Safety Website:

    • http://www.ehs.berkeley.edu/radsafety.html

Stay Safe!


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