Early History of Malaya

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Introduction. Ancient HistoryEarly InhabitantsAncient PortsOld Malay KingdomIslands of the Malay ArchipelagoThe Malay Kingdom of MalaccaThe Golden Age of MalaccaFall of the Malacca EmpireInternal FactorsExternal FactorsOther Malay KingdomsColonial EraPortugese and Dutch ColonizationBrit
Early History of Malaya

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1. Early History of Malaya Week 4: Early History

2. Introduction Ancient History Early Inhabitants Ancient Ports Old Malay Kingdom Islands of the Malay Archipelago The Malay Kingdom of Malacca The Golden Age of Malacca Fall of the Malacca Empire Internal Factors External Factors Other Malay Kingdoms Colonial Era Portugese and Dutch Colonization British Colonization The Acquisition of Penang Island and Singapore Anglo-Dutch Treat 1824 British Intervention in the Malay States, Sabah and S?wak Federated Malay States Federated Malay State Treaty Federal Executive Council Non-federated Malay States Decentralization of Power Japanese Occupation Japanese Victory Effects of the Invasion Era of the Emergency No Support for Communist Ideology Communist Uprising and Terrorism Declaration of Emergency and Emergency Laws Psychological Warfare Baling Negotiation Impact

3. Introduction Ancient History Old Malay Kingdom Islands of the Malay Archipelago The Malay Kingdom of Malacca Other Malay Kingdoms Colonial Era Era of the Emergency

4. 1. Ancient History Earliest inhabitants in M?sia: 74,000 years ago Discovery by Stauffer, 1973; Chesner and Rose Lived near Kuala Tampan (Perak) Early Inhabitants Palaeolithic [Early Stone Age] (35k years ago) Tampan Estuary, Niah Cave, Tingkayu Mesolithinc [Middle Stone Age] (11k years) Caves: Cha (Kel), Kecil (Phg), Kepah (Ked), Madai (Sab), gamantang (Sab), Niah Neolithic [New Stone Age] (5k years) Metal Age [2.5k years]

5. 1. Ancient History Earliest inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago Champa Malays Ancient Ports Kuala Selinsing (Perak) Jenderam Hilir (S?gor) Santubong (S?wak) We had resin, cane, minerals (gold, tin ore) Named ?Suvarnabumi? (Golden earth) Golden Chersonese (Golden Peninsula)

6. 2. Old Malay Kingdom Powerful Malay Kingdoms existed in the Malay Archipelago since the early part of the first century Centres of trade, govt and spread of religion Many had extensive vassal states

7. 3. Islands of the Malay Archipelago Malay Archipelago also known as ?The Malay World? or ?Islands of the Malay Archipelago? was geo-political region of the Malays Inhabitants free to move from one place to another, as there were bo boundaries Characterized as a nation with one Malay language and culture Similar language spoken by Malays in Cambodia, South Thailand and South Philippines, Indonesia Islands were split up by the Western colonialists English controlled Peninsula, and part of Borneo Island Dutch controlled Indonesia French controlled Indochina Spanish controlled Philippines Many of the people were Malays who were scattered in all these ?islands?

8. 4. Malay Kingdom of Malacca Dutch author, Tom Pires in the 16th century wrote, ?Malacca is very famous and prosperous. In my opinion, it has no comparison in the world? It is a city more suitable for trading products than any other in the world.? Dutch author, Duarte Barbosa, wrote: ?Malaccas is the richest port, with merchants who trade wholesale and obtain shipping services from all over the world.? Founded by Parameswara in 1403 AD. Grew into a great Empire in the Malay Archipelago Well known as a centre for maritime trade and spread of Islam Vast territory and strong trade relations with China and India Had an organized system of government: Ruler was head of state, Islamic religion and the Army Had officials such as Financ eMinister, Admiral, Chief of Defence, Chief Bursar and Harbour-Master. All assisted the King. Based on 2 main laws: The Malacca Law and the Malacca Law of the Sea

9. 4. Malay Kingdom of Malacca Strategic location midway along the trade routes btwn India and China Spread of Islam to other parts of the Peninsula began at Malacca Malay was widely used, but there were also as much as 82 languages spoken in the city. Malay was language of administration, commerce, daily interaction. Strong trade ties with China. China provided protection against imperialism from Siam.

10. 4. Malay Kingdom of Malacca Fall of the empire: 1511 Malacca reached its supremacy under rule of Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477) but declined after Contributing factors: Internal: Chief Minister Tun Mutahir was a weak leader (hence struggles for power) + Sultan Mahmud was also a weak ruler (paid little attention to administration) Malays were hostile towards the Mamaks (Indian-Muslims) Misunderstanding and disputes caused segregation among the people External: Arrival of Portugese, when the Cape of Good Hope was discovered by Diaz in 1488 High taxes made the merchants leave Malacca

11. 5. Other Malay Kingdoms There were other Kingdoms: Kedah, Perak, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu, Kelantan, Johore and Selangor Each had sovereign rulers with absolute administrative power (only NS was diff) Used ?Temenggung Customs? to deal with disputes relating to criminal, civil, family and maritime laws Adat Perpatih used in NS Showed civilization

12. 6. Colonial Era Colonizers Portugese and Dutch Colonization British Colonization Anglo Duth Treaty 1824 Straits Settlements British Intervention in Malay States, Sabah and S?wak Federated Malay States Decentralization of Power Japanese Occupation Effects

13. 7. Emergency Communist Uprising and Terrorism Emergency/Emergency Laws Psychological Warfare Baling Negotiation Impact

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