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Benefits of Radiation in Every Day Life. Beneficial Uses of Radiation. Medical Diagnoses and Treatment Research Applications Industrial/Manufacturing Applications Food Irradiation Consumer Products/Safety and Security Spacecraft Power Supply Electric Power Generation. Medical Uses.

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beneficial uses of radiation
Beneficial Uses of Radiation
  • Medical Diagnoses and Treatment
  • Research Applications
  • Industrial/Manufacturing Applications
  • Food Irradiation
  • Consumer Products/Safety and Security
  • Spacecraft Power Supply
  • Electric Power Generation
medical uses
Medical Uses
  • Diagnostic
    • Generally low doses
    • Short-time exposures
  • Therapeutic
    • Generally high doses
    • Short to long time exposures
diagnostic uses
Diagnostic Uses
  • X-radiation
    • Radiographs
    • Fluoroscopy
    • CT scan
  • Nuclear Medicine
x radiation radiographs
X-Radiation:Radiographs
  • Short time exposures (much less than a second)
  • Low doses
    • Dental: 0.08 - 0.10 mSv (8 - 10 mrem)
    • Chest: 0.06 - 0.10 mSv (6 - 10 mrem)
    • Mammogram: 0.3 - 0.5 mSv (30 - 50 mrem)
    • Hip: 0.4-0.8 mSv (40-80 mrem)
x radiation fluoroscopy
X-Radiation:Fluoroscopy
  • Long time exposures (minute or longer)
  • Higher doses
    • Barium Enema: 6 - 9 mSv (600 - 900 mrem)
    • Upper GI: 3.5 - 5.5 mSv (350 - 550 mrem)
x radiation ct scan
X-Radiation:CT-Scan
  • Series of short exposures at different angles
  • Computer analysis and display
  • Gives cross-section view of anatomy
  • Medium doses:
    • Head: 2 - 3 mSv (200 - 300 mrem)
    • Body: 3 - 4 mSv (300 - 400 mrem)
nuclear medicine
Nuclear Medicine
  • Radioactive material injected into the patient
  • Gamma radiation detected to give image - computer analysis
  • Used to:
    • Locate tumors
    • Determine organ function
therapeutic uses
Therapeutic Uses
  • Radiotherapy (Direct radiation beam)
    • Gamma rays
    • Electron beams
    • X-radiation
  • Brachytherapy (Radiation from internally deposited radioactivity)
    • Removable seeds (long half-life)
    • Permanent seeds (short half-life)
therapeutic uses continued
Therapeutic Uses (Continued)
  • Internal Unsealed Sources
    • Biological uptake (Iodine)
    • Direct injection
  • Very High Local Doses for Therapeutic Uses
    • 50 to several hundred Sieverts, depending on the type, location, and size of the tumor
characteristics of ideal brachytherapy radionuclides
Characteristics of Ideal Brachytherapy Radionuclides
  • Half life should not cause extended stay in hospital
  • Radioisotope should emit alpha or beta radiation
  • Radioisotope should also emit gamma rays to ensure targeted area is treated
characteristics of ideal therapeutic radionuclides
Characteristics of Ideal Therapeutic Radionuclides
  • Half life should not cause extended stay in hospital
  • Radioisotope should emit alpha or beta radiation
  • Radioisotope should also emit gamma rays to ensure targeted area is treated
research use
Research Use
  • Biological and Genetic research
  • Agricultural research
  • Space research
  • Pharmaceutical research
manufacturing testing and measurements
Manufacturing Testing and Measurements
  • Monitor thickness of materials during production
    • Sheet metal, aluminum foil
    • Newspaper
  • Measure wear on cutting/drilling tools
  • Other measurements
    • Amount of glue on postage stamp
    • Level of liquid in canned beverages
industrial use
Industrial Use
  • Well logging
  • Moisture/density gauges
  • Radiography
  • Sterilization
    • Medical instruments
    • Cosmetics
    • Food/Spices
level gauge gamma switching technique
Level GaugeGamma Switching Technique

High level alarm

detector

High signal reject

source

source

NaI detector

Can/package content monitor

Low level alarm

Storage hopper level control

thickness gauge transmission thickness technique
Thickness GaugeTransmission Thickness Technique

NaI detector

load

conveyor

source

Belt weigher

thickness gauge
Thickness Gauge

Non-contact measurement and control of liquids, solids or slurries in

pipelines. Specific source size is selected for each application.

This is also referred to as gamma gauging or belt weighing

Source

Detector

thickness gauge gamma backscattering technique
Thickness GaugeGamma Backscattering Technique

NaI

detector

Source

Sampled volume

glass

Coal

food irradiation
Food Irradiation
  • Food treatment comparable to pasteurization
    • Kills pests/microorganisms without food degradation
    • Controls sprouting
  • Does not make the food radioactive
  • FDA Approved
  • Must be labeled
consumer products safety and security
Consumer ProductsSafety and Security
  • Smoke Detection Equipment
  • Self-powered Lighting in Exit Signs
  • Lighted Aircraft Instrumentation
  • Pharmaceutical Detection
  • Bomb/Weapons Detection
  • Scanning and Surveillance Equipment
  • Theft Deterrent Systems
spacecraft power supplies
Spacecraft Power Supplies
  • Small radioactive sources have provided heat and electrical power for space probes for decades
  • Radioactive power supplies have allowed space craft to explore the outer solar system, too far from the sun for solar panels to be effective
electric power generation
Electric Power Generation
  • Nuclear Power supplies about 20% of the country’s electric power
  • Unlike fossil fuels, nuclear power does not release greenhouse gasses
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