Life in the Virtual Office: The Effect of Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity of Team Members on Producti...
Download
1 / 42

David Dalsky, Kenji Noguchi, Dan Landis Center for Applied Research and Evaluation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 52 Views
  • Uploaded on

Life in the Virtual Office: The Effect of Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity. David Dalsky, Kenji Noguchi, Dan Landis Center for Applied Research and Evaluation University of Mississippi

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' David Dalsky, Kenji Noguchi, Dan Landis Center for Applied Research and Evaluation' - joan-maldonado


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Life in the Virtual Office: The Effect of Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

David Dalsky, Kenji Noguchi, Dan Landis

Center for Applied Research and Evaluation

University of Mississippi

This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant # N00014-98-1-0347 to the third author


Presentation at military personnel research science workshop june 4 2002 memphis tennessee
Presentation and Ethnicity of Team Members on ProductivityatMilitary Personnel Research Science WorkshopJune 4, 2002Memphis, Tennessee


Disclaimer
Disclaimer and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • "The opinions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the Office of Naval Research, the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or any of their agencies. Any omissions or commissions are solely those of the authors."


Interaction of culture and technology in the lab
Interaction of culture and technology in the lab and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Computers and networks

    • Allow objective measure of performance

    • Control of proximity

    • Control of communication effects

  • Greater experimental control

    • Manipulate difficulty

    • Isolate culture and ethnicity

    • Emulate real world situations


Hypotheses
Hypotheses and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Steiner and others would suggest that the decremented effect of heterogeneity is due to process loss, which implies face-to-face interaction.

  • Based on this line of theorizing, McGrath suggested that technology (e.g., the internet) would reduce or eliminate process loss and thereby produce no negative effect of heterogeneity.


Hypotheses1
Hypotheses and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Thus, our major hypothesis is that: in a virtual team situation, there should be no effect due to the perceived culture or ethnicity of the team members (the McGrath hypothesis). In particular, this result should occur when there is NO information about the team members provided

  • The counter hypothesis is: that process loss will operate as subjects use fantasy and rehearsal to evaluate the characteristics of the team members, even when no information is provided.


Implications for selection and classification
Implications for Selection and Classification and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Military missions require that members of work teams cooperate and that process loss be kept to a minimum

  • However, process loss may be very resistant to amelioration.

  • But, the susceptibility to process loss in team situations may be assessed like any other aptitude

  • Selection for team work group situations could be made on the basis of such an assessment


The sample

Males and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

N=367

Mean Age=19.72

41% in a social fraternity

68% first or second year students

37% had never worked on diverse work team

88% had no or few friends of other ethnic groups

Females

N=497

Mean Age=19.59

48% in a social sorority

77% first or second year students

43 % had never worked on a diverse work team

87% had no or few friends of other ethnic groups

The Sample


The sample individualism collectivism
The Sample: Individualism/Collectivism and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Research task sales call
Research task: “Sales Call” and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Interface based on military decision making research in the 60’s

  • Properties of computerized version confirmed in Phase 1 of our research

  • Current version may be run over a network

  • Output

    • Objective measure of performance

    • Group and individual outcomes

    • Group process questionnaires

  • Used a variant of the minimal group paradigm—called “virtual group.”


Methodology
Methodology and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Phase 1

    • Set the stage for the “internet” context

    • Demographic and cultural questionnaires

  • Phase 2

    • Learn about Sales Call

    • Prime for individualistic tendencies

    • Practice games (no feedback)

    • “Internet” presentation of teammates (experimental manipulation)

    • Questionnaires about impressions of teammates (Semantic Differential and Process Variables)—taken three times during game play—beginning, middle, and at end.

    • Actual game pages (no feedback)

    • Allocation of reward

    • Follow-up questionnaires

    • Debriefing


Phase i questionnaires
Phase I Questionnaires and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

  • Demographics

  • Triandis, Chen, & Chan’s (1998) Horizontal/Vertical Individual/Collectivism Scale

  • Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, & Gelfand’s (1995) Horizontal/Vertical Individual/Collectivism Attitudes

  • Schwartz’ Values Survey

  • Paulhus’ Balance Inventory of Desirable Responding

  • Rokeach’s (1968) Value Survey


Examples of culture questions singelis et al
Examples of culture questions: and Ethnicity of Team Members on ProductivitySingelis, et.al.

  • Winning is everything

  • I often do my own thing

  • I usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of the group

  • I feel good when I cooperate with others


Experimental design replicated by gender
Experimental Design (replicated by gender) and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

Ethnicity of Team Members

Cauc

Black

Asian

None

Ind

Culture of Team Members

Coll

None


Physical arrangement
Physical Arrangement and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity

Lime

Host

Blueberry

Tangerine

Grape


Sales call screen shots 1
Sales Call Screen Shots - 1 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Sales call screen shot 2
Sales Call Screen Shot - 2 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Sales call screen shot 3
Sales Call Screen Shot - 3 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Sales call screen shots 4
Sales Call Screen Shots - 4 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Sales call screen shots 5
Sales Call Screen Shots - 5 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Experimental manipulation screen 1
Experimental Manipulation Screen - 1 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Experimental manipulation screen 2
Experimental Manipulation Screen - 2 and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Example of a subject working
Example of a subject working and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Data analyses
Data Analyses: and Ethnicity of Team Members on Productivity


Production as a function of perceived group characteristics: Males and females shown same gender photos


Production as a function of perceived group characteristics:

Males and females shown all male photos



Strength of the experimental paradigm
Strength of the experimental paradigm

  • Flexibility

    • Vary subject race and gender

    • Vary culture

    • Vary communication (chat)

  • Impact

    • Believable manipulation

    • Involving task

    • Emulates real-world work situations


Future directions
Future Directions

  • Continue analysis of other covariates (e.g., other background data on participants)

  • Test mixed gender groups (males shown female photos)

  • Increase impact of teammates’ culture through chat interaction

  • Explore effects of task accomplishment feedback

  • Test effects of cultural training intervention (e.g., cultural sensitizer) to reduce effect of ethnicity and culture

  • Explore the familiarity effect (e.g., replication at institution with more Asian students)

  • ??????????


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • The effects of ethnicity, culture, and gender may be independent of each other

  • Adding cultural information of virtual teammates may enhance performance

  • Performance of females may be effected by the gender of virtual teammates

  • The virtual office simulation is a valid method to examine culture, ethnicity, and gender effects on the functioning of small work groups

  • The virtual office simulation may provide a method for assessing susceptibility to the effects of process loss.



ad