The nervous system
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The Nervous System. Laura Bisbee, Erin Campbell, Sam Bruno. Three Main Parts of the Brian. Cerebrum Cerebellum Medulla Oblongata . Cerebrum. This is where conscious thought goes on Largest Part of brain Right half controls creativity Left half controls logic

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The Nervous System

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The nervous system

The Nervous System

Laura Bisbee, Erin Campbell, Sam Bruno


Three main parts of the brian

Three Main Parts of the Brian

  • Cerebrum

  • Cerebellum

  • Medulla Oblongata


Cerebrum

Cerebrum

  • This is where conscious thought goes on

  • Largest Part of brain

  • Right half controls creativity

  • Left half controls logic

  • Its separated in to four lobes

    • Frontal lobe

    • Occipital lobe

    • Temporal lobe

    • Parietal lobe


Temporal lobe

Temporal Lobe

  • Involved with hearing processing, speech and vision

  • Part of the limbic system, which controls emotion and memory

  • Long term Memories are formed here.


Occipital lobe

Occipital Lobe

  • Where most visual processing happens

  • Damage to this lobe can cause Blindness and hallucinations


Parietal lobe

Parietal lobe

  • Two main regions

    • First controls sensation and perception

    • The second Constructs a spatial coordinate system to represent the world around us.


Frontal lobe

Frontal Lobe

  • This part of the brain is where your personality and emotions are controlled.

  • It is in the front f the head which makes it the most prone to injury of all the lobes.


Cerebellum

Cerebellum

  • Cerebellum means “little brain”

  • Its located in the back of the brain

  • Controls fine motor skills, posture and balance

  • Damage to the cerebellum can cause loss of balance and slurred speech


Medulla oblongata

Medulla Oblongata

  • Lower part of the brain stem

  • Regulates vital body functions

  • Controls reflexes like swallowing and coughing


Head injuries

Head injuries

  • Any trauma to the brain, skull or scalp

  • One of the most common causes of death to adults

  • Classified in two ways

    • Open – object broke skull and entered brain

    • Closed- Hard hit to head but did not break skull


Head injuries cont

Head injuries cont.

  • Symptoms can range from mild to servre

  • Some common types

    • Concussion

    • Skull fracture

    • Intracranial hematoma

    • Contusion (Bruising)


Treatment of head injures

Treatment of head injures

  • Based on age, type of injury and overall health

  • Types of treatment

    • Medication

    • Surgery

    • Repositioning

    • Fluid restriction


The spinal cord

The Spinal Cord

  • The spinal cord id the passage way from information to be transferred to the brain

  • It has five different type of nerves with in it:

    • Cervical nerves that give movement and feeling to arms, neck and upper torso

    • Thoracic- nerves give movement to the upper body muscles and arms

    • Lumbar nerves give feeling to the legs and feet

    • Sacral nerves that got to both send nerves to the legs along with the lumbar nerves, bladder, bowel, and reproductive organs

    • Coccyegal nerve give gives feeling to the tail bone and the area around


Neuron impulse transition

Neuron Impulse Transition

  • Process of sending an impulse from brain

  • In order for this to happen their needs to be a change in charge.


Steps of neuron impulse transition

Steps of neuron impulse transition

  • Polarization of neuron’s membrane - the inside of the membrane is negative and the outside is positive

  • Neuron stays at rest until stimulus.

  • Sodium ions move inside the membrane

  • Repolarization

  • Hyperpolarization: More potassium ions are on the outside than there are sodium ions on the inside

  • Refractory period

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYnvt8biXX0&feature=related


Brain abscesses

Brain Abscesses

  • A collection of immune cells, pus and other material in the brain.

  • Caused by bacterial or fungal infections

  • Some Symptoms

    • Pain the upper and back and neck

    • drowsiness

    • slow thought process

    • seizures

    • loss of coordination and muscle function

    • If left untreated a coma


Brian abscesses treatments

Brian Abscesses treatments

  • Medication

    • Medication can be used if the abscess small enough (less than 2cm)

  • Surgery

    • Surgery is needed is the medication is infective

    • In surgery the whole abscess will be taken out or a needle will be used to extract the fluid from the abscess


Brian disorders and diseases

Brian disorders and diseases

  • ADHD-Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Cerebral Palsy

  • Huntington’s Disease

  • Tay-Sachs Disease


The nervous system

ADHD

  • People with ADHD can not handle certain chemicals in the brain such as dopamine, serotonin, and adrenalin.

  • These chemicals all are related to emotions and impulses

  • Symptoms :

    • being easily distracted

    • excessive talking

    • acting without thinking

  • Medications such as are used to treat ADHD:

    • Ritalin

    • Dexedrine

    • Adderall


Cerebral palsy

Cerebral Palsy

  • Motor disorders that result from brain injuries

  • Effects the motor skills and ability to move

  • The damaged area in this disease is the cerebellum

  • Symptoms range from not being able to use scissors to not being able to balance while walking.


Limbic system

Limbic System

  • This is the system of the brain that controls emotion and memory

  • It Includes :

    • The Hypothalamus

      • Deals with homeostasis

      • Controls thirst, hunger, anger, sexual behaviors

  • The Hippocampus

    • Converts from short term to long term memory

    • If damaged no more new memories can be formed

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErjP5xMTc8I&feature=related

  • The Amygdala

    • Role in emotional and motivation behavior


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